By Irshad Ali Sodhar (FSP)
2. Brief history of World Order
3. United States’ Uni-polar Status
4. Determinants of World Order
a) Economic strength
b) Military power
c) International political clout
d) Ideology appeal
5. The Paradigm shift
6. Catalyst factors:
a) Energy resources
b) Iraq war
c) Financial crisis
7. Future scenario- Multipolar World
8. Would the multipolarity be beneficial to world?
History has witnessed cycles of rise and fall of civilisations, empires and regional as well as
global powers. In past, military power was the only decisive factor in “balance of power”
among nations. Its strength ensured their expansion and influence while its weakness
precipitated their fall and disintegration. Though, it is still an important element, many other
factors like economy, ideology, political stability, statesmanship and diplomacy have played
substantial role in determining the status of a country among the comity of nations in this
The World Order has been more dynamic due to the unprecedented developments in
international affairs in the last century-ranging from multipolar, bipolar and unipolar. The US
has enjoyed unilateral and unparalleled status in the international affairs. But as history
repeats itself, the might of American power is visibly diminishing due to neoconservative
and imperialistic policies, and new centres of power are emerging to shape the “multipolar
Naturally, whenever any major power or state has shown its ambition to conquer the world
and set up hegemonic empire, it has created resistance from other forces or alliance of
forces. This clash of power has been the characteristics of all the periods, though; the 20th
century is significantly an example of unprecedented struggle between the countries to
acquire world supremacy. In the multipolar world, the conflict between European countries
led to the World War-I. Till then United States of America followed isolationist policies in
international realm. During first three years of war, Washington remained out of war and
then declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917. The success in war established an
international foothold for the US.
This deadliest war of history came to an end with of the deadliest weapons (nuclear bombs),
which ushered in a new era of nuclear competition. As the military strength of both the US
and the USSR (former) had played significant role in defeating the “axis”, they established
their enormous influence in the world affairs. The resulting conflict of interest and ideology
between the US and the USSR shaped “Bipolar World Order”. In the aftermath of World War-
II, United Nations Organisation (UNO) was created to maintain peace. However, this forum
was also unable to diffuse the tension between the US and the former USSR which marked
the second half of the 20th century. The period is known as the Cold War.
Eventually, Cold War ended with the disintegration of the USSR and emergence of the US as
sole super power of the world– economically, militarily and politically. The then president of
the US Bush coined the term “New World Order”, which was significantly “Unipolar”. The US
has enjoyed a prominent status and role since then; its economy grew with tremendous
pace, its military strength has been unmatched, its political influence in the international
affairs has been uncontested, and its ideology of democratic principle earned its world
Simply, the US holds supremacy in every element of global eminence. Richard Nixon, the
ex-president of the US, in his book “In the Arena”, has described ingredients of global
political clout as: economic power, military forces, ideological appeal, domestic political
cohesion, skill in statecraft and commonality of interest with other major powers. In the
light of these ingredients the US still enjoys upper hand over other countries of the world.
Some of these are enumerated here.
The US also possesses a strongest military in the world with 1.4 million active personnel
force. Its combat force consists of the largest number of carrier ships, fastest fighter planes
with precision guided missiles and bombs. It has successfully tested anti-ballistic missile
More importantly, the US has led the world ideologically- for the purpose of democratic
principles. It was this ideological perception on the basis of which League of Nations after
the World War-I and the United Nations after the World War-II were created.
Moreover, it has maintained commonalty of interest with other major powers. However, it
has not been able to acquire absolute power due to increasing competition from other major
powers, particularly emergence of China, resurgence of Russia, and union of European
countries globally and Iran, Venezuela regionally. “The scope of America’s global hegemony
is admittedly great but its depth is shallow, limited by both domestic and external
restraints.” Says Birzinski, the former US National Security Advisor.
The US has posed and acted as a most powerful state in the last two decades, but the
shallowness of its power. Other powers have challenged the hegemony of the US in the
international affairs. Though, no any power has individually surpassed the US in any of the
elements of balance of power, they are poised to do in the near future, given the changing
Economically, the US is still the largest economy of the world but closely followed by Japan
and China. The per capita income of Japan is higher than that of the US. China has a very
growing economy with sustained growth rate of over nine per cent for the last one and a
half decades. The US faces trade deficit of $800 billon while China has trade surplus of $150
billion a year. EU’s collective GDP is now greater than that of the US. Since the launch of
Euro currency in 1999, dollar had been losing its value against it constantly. Economy of
Russia has been bloating its since 2000 and its GDP has been tripled. The rising oil and gas
prices have added enormous impetus in Russian economy. Commenting on the challenges to
unipolarity of the US, Richard N. Hass, a scholar at US Council for Foreign Affairs, wrote in
“Foreign Affairs Magazine”: “Although US’ GDP accounts for over 25 per cent of the world
total, this percentage is sure to decline over time given actual and projected differential
between US growth rate and those of Asian giants”.
Militarily, US military force is said to be the strongest in the world but its superiority is not
assuredly marked in contrast to the military forces’ capabilities of other major powers like
Russia, China, France, Germany or if the capability of communist countries is combined on
the one hand and that of the EU is combined on other hand. Almost all the major powers
are nuclear states. Russia claims to have antiballistic missile capability successfully
developed and tested during the Cold War; China has tested a direct ‘anti-satellite missile’
and ‘carrier cruse killer’. Moreover, in the current scenario militarilism and terrorism have
undermined the strength of quite larger armies. The 9/11 attacks showed how a small
investment by terrorists could cause extraordinary level of damage.
Politically, the influence of the US and its unilateral posture has been seriously checked. This
is manifested from nuclear imbroglio with North Korea and Iran. China proved to be the best
able to influence Pyongyang. Iran has faced four sets of sanctions by the UNSC on the
insistence of the US but does not seem to be ready to compromise its stance. The degree of
sanctions was significantly softened due to the stand of Russia and China. “Washington’s
ability to pressure Tehran has been strengthened by the participation of several Western
European countries and weakened by the reluctance of China and Russia to sanction Iran”,
says Richard N. Hass.
Meanwhile, writ of the US has been significantly challenged by Venezuela in Latin America,
which is supported by Argentina and Brazil. While challenging the US authority, Venezuela is
developing close relations with Russia and China. Russian President Dimitry Medvedev
visited Caracas in mid 2008 and signed a nuclear deal with his counterpart Hugo Chavez.
Their military cooperation is also strengthening after this result. In South Asia, India is
emerging as a global power due to its robust economic growth and large population of over
Ideologically, US had prominence due to its ideological appeal but the practical approach to
the democratic cause has been contrary to the ideology. Washington’s dealing with other
countries has been influenced by its economic and hegemonic interests rather than
democratic principles and justice. The US has been supportive to dictatorships and
kingdoms, while it has been calling others for democracy. The factor which has most
stigmatised America’s reputation is its policy in the Middle East where it has been biased. It
calls Israel’s ‘state terrorism’ as ‘right of self-defense’, while it terms the legitimate
resistance of Palestinians as ‘terrorism’.
Though, emergence of new powers was natural, the status of the US could remain
unchallenged, had Washington transformed its attitude and policies from a unilateralist to
multilateralist approach. But the unilateral and unjustified policies of the US on several
accounts from Iraq war to climate change crises have only unveiled fissures in its power
structure. The most controversial issues, which have placed the US at the opposite pole
from rest of the world, are energy crises, Iraq war, climate change, financial crises and
globalisation. These factors have rather proved catalyst in the shift from unipolar to the
Energy resources are vital element in foreign policy formulation, particularly in
contemporary scenario of energy crises. The US energy policy is a driving force behind the
end of unipolarity. Since there is increase in demand of oil, it has two-fold effects on
geopolitical front. First; the increase in demand raised the world oil prices from just over
$20 a barrel to over $150 a barrel in less than a decade until the financial crisis plunged the
oil prices. This increase in oil cost resulted in enormous transfer of wealth and leverage to
A R Khan Chachar CSS_2016
energy rich countries. Secondly in order to secure energy supply, all the major powers have
common interest in the energy rich countries. This competition has resulted in
confrontational politics on the international stage. This is the energy demand which led the
US to war in Iraq.
The Iraq war has significantly contributed to the dilution of the US power in the world. It has
proved to be expensive in terms of almost all elements of power and in human terms.
Historian Paul Kennedy had outlined in his book ‘Imperial Overstretch’ that the US would
eventually decline by overreaching just as other powers had in the past. The war has cost
America deaths of more than 4,500 troops and over $700 billion as loss. Resultantly, the US
fiscal position has declined from surplus of $100 billion in 2000 to a deficit of $700 billion in
2007. This also manifests that Washington cannot fight anymore war unilaterally.
On the diplomatic front, the US could not obtain approval from the United Nations Security
Council (UNSC) for going into war in Iraq. The issue of pre-emptive war divided the US and
the UK from their European partners — France and Germany — and other global powers —
Russia and China.
The financial crisis of 2008 hit the backbone of the US economy whereas Russian, Chinese
and other Asian economies have displayed quite stability. The crisis damaged not only its
economy but image as well. “The financial crisis is causing major damage to US image as
the stable anchor of the world economy, and American leadership, as the dominant financial
superpower with free and innovative markets, is in question”, says Yeongseop Rhee, of
Brookings institution. In a short, the financial crisis has defined the economic multipolarity
of the world.
Besides, the globalisation has transformed the world into an interdependent multipolar
world. Nation States have been losing their monopoly on power and are being challenged by
regional and global organisations, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and
corporations. Globalisation has strengthened ties and connection in economy, politics,
science and technology, culture and society around the world. It is the impact of
globalisation and leverage of environmental NGOs that 186 countries though reluctantly
signed the Kyoto Protocol, Copenhagen Accord and now the ‘Cancun Agreements’ on climate
Above issues have reflected upon a point that no country can independently address such
global issues like climate change, terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction,
economic crisis and above all the world peace and security. It has been proved that
unilateral and hegemonic efforts have been failed to change the objective law of world
politics, rather, they have aroused resistance across the world.
Hence it is becoming evident that the age of ‘unipolarity’ is ‘dissipating’ and the world is
‘moving towards’ natural ‘multipolarity’. In other words, there emerged multipowers or
centres power. However, multipolarity is not an immediate reality the rather it is developing
trend. As the emerging powers are strengthening and their inter-dependence increasing,
world is being pushed towards multipolarity.
In the future multipolar world order, power would not rest with a few major countries but
with several countries. Each having its specific prominence will have assertive say in the
world affairs. Besides the US, Japan, China, EU and India would have economic strength.
Iran, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, members of the African Union and Brazil would have leverage
due to their vast energy resources. Russia would have both advantages. Some countries
would have importance due to their geostrategic location like Pakistan, Central Asian States,
Ukraine, and Turkey as these countries are located on the energy routes through which
energy resources will be routed to rest of the world. Besides, the international organisations
like UNO, World Bank, IMF; regional organisations like SAARC, EU, SCO, ASEAN, AU and
NGOs including environmental, social and humanitarian would be on the list of power
Here a question arises; whether the multipolar world with so many power centres could
ensure peace and security? There are serious concerns because previous multipolarity had
led to two World Wars. The answer is assuredly affirmative. The future multipolarity is not
going to be like the previous one based on independent power base of countries. On the
contrary, the emerging multipolarity is the age of growing inter-dependence and mutual
cooperation. The countries would not be asserting their influence individually but through
regional and international organisations on the basis of democratic principles.
The strength of economy, technological advancement, availability of energy and human
development depend upon the cooperation of all countries and civilisations. And a multipolar
world can best serve this purpose by creating balance in exercise of power and boosting
competitive atmosphere in technological and economic fields. In this regard, a scholar of
Chinese People Association for Peace and Disarmament, Yu Zhongrong says, “A multipolar
world is characterised with coexistence of multiple forces and multiple entities.” To be
precise, collective security, mutual cooperation and inter-dependence would be the earmark
of multipolar world.
To achieve this purpose, all the existing and emerging powers need to develop consensus on
some prerequisites. The international relations are required to be democratised. And to
achieve the goals, UN is a best forum. Firstly its charter’s basic principles of equality of
states, majority as core of democratic system and mechanism of institutions shall be
followed in true spirit in dealing with all international issues. Secondly, UN’s authority must
be safeguarded and enhanced to play its role to balance the power of various forces and to
find just and rational solution to international conflicts like Palestine, Kashmir, Iraq, nuclear
proliferation and humanitarian crises. It shall facilitate dialogue and exchange of views
between different civilisations and cultures of all religion, region and countries.
As the chronicles of international politics have proved that hegemony and imperialism are
the biggest threat to world peace and are the root causes of conflicts and wars, the
multipolar world of ‘inter-dependence’ and ‘coexistence’ is a bid to create a harmonious
world of economic stability, social justice, collective security and common development. In
this way, human will see the world to embark on the path of peace-the ultimate goal.
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ISLAMABAD: Though the Higher Education Commission (HEC) has investigated over 200 cases of plagiarism against students and teachers since 2006, it is shocking that professors who prepare question papers for competitive examinations are also involved in ‘copy pasting.’
It has been learnt that a question asked in the Central Superior Services (CSS) examination held under the Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC) was copied from an entry test paper of the International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI).
A faculty member of a university who marked the answer sheets of the CSS examinations requesting not to be identified said the paper of journalism, an elective subject, was held on February 18, 2014.
“As I was supposed to get the answer books for checking, I decided to see the question paper of the CSS paper. At the first glance, I felt that I have already seen question number seven. I read it again and remembered that the same question had been asked in the entry test for MS in the IIUI because my son had appeared in the test on January 17,” he said.
“I checked the IIUI question paper and was shocked to see that both the questions were the same. Even there was no difference of commas and the question mark. I have no objection to asking similar questions in different papers but the paper setter should use their own language and way of asking questions.”
He added that by looking at the question papers, one can easily understand that the CSS paper setter had copied the question from the IIUI question paper.
May be the other questions were also copied from some recently held exams.
According to the question papers, the three-line question was “In elections 2013, the social media were used as a vehicle of political advertising by the leading political parties of Pakistan. Do you think that social media had considerable effects on the election results? Please support your answer with concrete examples.”
A faculty member of the Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU) added that the FPSC should ensure that questions for the CSS exams were not carried from any recently-held exam because if someone have already attempted a question it becomes easier to solve it again.
“CSS is the most important exam and the cream of the country is selected through it. So this sort of blunders should not be made at such an important level,” he said.
“As far as I know, each paper setter sends three question papers for the CSS exam so rather than doing hard work they pick questions from different question papers and send them to the commission,” he said.
When contacted, former minister and eminent educationist Dr Attaur Rahman said if some part of a question accidentally matched with some other question it can be ignored but if a three liner question is similar to the other question it is not allowed.
“This is also plagiarism and the paper setters are not allowed to copy questions from anywhere. It is also dishonesty because questions should be written in the question setter’s own words,” he said.
“I cannot imagine that these things can be done at the CSS level. The paper setters hired should stop plagiarism,” he said.
An official of the FPSC, who was not authorised to speak to the media on record, said sometimes paper setters made blunders but the FPSC should not be blamed for it.
“I will inform the examination department about the issue and hopefully appropriate action will be taken,” he said.