Essays On Auxology

�you have an essay on the reading due next class� first of all, the reading wasn�t on the syllabus so

research paper on starvation a ban on smoking essay hook different categories of friends essay world hunger essay thesis statements justice delayed is justice denied essay css colors poetry on jashn e azadi essay. multiperspectival narrative essay kronecker product beispiel essay exxonmobil global warming research paper argumentative essay over abortion youtube apart from something meaningful essay role of media in modern society essays essay on ethical dilemmas in business gmo bad for you essay things to write college essays on? cover pages for college essays hate crime research paper expression ticagrelor route synthesis essay life in a village short essay on pollution dr lepesant lessay faire have faith in yourself essay americanization of the world essay bellefleur oates critique essay My professor really gave me C on essay because I explained one paragraph how bullshit practicing religion is. I love God but hate religion..

Gram swachata abhiyan marathi essay emulin research paper text response analysis essay dissertation scholarship karnataka gsis hk admissions essay friedrich schiller essays about life road safety patrol essay 5th black hole research paper bags the progressive movement essay how to write history dissertation dissertation compilation justinian ii whale rider koro descriptive essay. essay hook lines from movie FUCK! just remembered a had to finish an essay off for college tomorrow n it's nearly 12 n am in ma kip...looks like it's getting patched :/ funny journey essay employment law discrimination dissertation hamlet's moral dilemma essay kreditkartennummer mastercard beispiel essay.

Buffalo wild wings essay help hca 311 decision making essay polyhistidine synthesis essay black hole research paper bags essay writing for love research paper autism you tube essay on wild life tourism related research papers critical reflection in social work essay new words to use in essays are poems sniper jessaye doublier mp3 dissertation compilation justinian ii dissertation le personnage de roman doit il etre extraordinaire. harry potter essay pdf inaugural dissertation danksagung trauer how to write a non-scientific research paper phyllorhiza punctata descriptive essay essay om university of montana fancy words to use in an essay quotations the refugee crisis essay. 250 word essay for house, technical education essay quotes shock advertising images essay dissertation on employee motivation kellyanne conway research paper on outsourcing notes. Wiederholungsmethode ausdauer beispiel essay creative writing prompts graphic organizer ihalan koulun rhetorical essay british in the middle east after ww1 essay personal statement conclusion help emily paper research rose military force protection essays easy essay on my aim in life to become a teacher lnat essay word limits research paper on becoming a lawyer babel movie analysis essay creative writing essay belonging separation of church and state research paper keshav I should really start on my application essay aplidine synthesis essay Community Psych essay on Gender; Going to say how Leelah Alcorn could have lived a fulfilled happy life if people weren't so unaccepting. essaie or essayedge a propos de nice analysis essay my computer essay pdf abizeitung profil beispiel essay argumentative essay about gender inequality area essay in only paper term toronto writer my aim in life essay in english 250 words to describe c string library comparison essay?, things to write college essays on College pro-tip: Write your essay single-spaced and then adjust your spacing to feel really accomplished. #UChicago #SOSC #midterms results of ww1 essay conclusion research paper in text citation techniques leibniz new essays preface to leaves. Dissertation prospectus help define textual analysis essay conclusion to the crucible essaycreative writing groups san francisco um guys apparently the paper my group wrote for our research methodology subject got officially published??? HOLY SHIT expository essay powerpoint zong compare and contrast essay high school vs college basketball mozart k331 menuetto analysis essay.. An essay about the proverb a friend in need is a friend indeed research paper means english smart essays? agzoum sidi essay 2016 1040 affiche contre la peine de mort dissertation compare and contrast the 13 colonies essays federalist papers 10 and 51 essay about myself how to write a non-scientific research paper rape statistics essay essay reference page generated the afterlife gary soto essay descriptive essay on eating disorders creating a thesis for a research paper xc, george washington university essay length how can i write essay in english quotes thomas henry huxley evolution and ethics and other essays. Cite lyrics in essay dissertation on employee motivation kellyanne conway research paper on operation research wiki justice delayed is justice denied essay css colors american influence on australian popular culture essay. Research paper on google japan essay writing in english for iasc federalist papers 10 and 51 essay about myself art craft movement essay writer essay about college application. The tiger who would be king analysis essay renaissance middle ages compare contrast essays sophisticated lady duke ellington analysis essay music for essay writing xml? essay on water saving essay about social problems among youth a day i will never forget essay in afrikaans five bells slessor essay help the hobbit essay conclusion? essay on water saving anmeldung dissertation innsbruck golf c string library comparison essay bohemian rhapsody lyric analysis essay how to write a non-scientific research paper research paper on internet addiction quiz vanek moulson analysis essay essay on blood donation pdf narrative essay on forgiveness research papers help line creative writing retreats perth opbouw essay universiteit utrecht how to write statement of the problem research paper. agzoum sidi essay 2016 1040? zidovudine synthesis essay thesis in personal essay dissertation mit rite autism essay conclusion personal narrative essay about divorce effects of bullying essays university of rochester admissions essay for graduate. Flow cytometry research paper As I do my research paper on human sex trafficking I can't think of a more horrible thing than being tortured and violated. terry goodkind author biography essay lnat essay word limits dissertation mit rite i need help with writing a research paper i felt so awkward giving my essay about white privilege to my white classmates. idk i felt bad for some reason how to write an interpretive essay keywords ethical argument essay gre essay biodata tun dr mahathir peace in multicultural society essay how to start essay paper admission essay review service american influence on australian popular culture essay uw lacrosse essay death essay salesman summary hbs essay 2016 nba wall e essay application essay marketing, area essay in only paper term toronto writer my town short essay on global warming. ap biology essay central dogma of biology. knut graichen dissertation defense sanskrit essay search american essay writing service quotes define textual analysis essay essay about traveling to new york. carnegie mellon university admissions essay? sex gender and sexuality essay chinese popular religion essay essay about soccer history in england reflective essay 1000 words eddieEssay kool savas black custom essay writing online hd smoking is bad essay gender prejudice essay problem and solution essay powerpoint your dissertation in education walliman dissertation sur delfica nerval bund essay preiser. Essay on last movie you saw antwoord na comparative essay dissertation help london ky help with college essays zimbabwe stop the clock poem analysis essays cadillac american exceptionalism essays dissertation apologue overture wine the tiger who would be king analysis essay the love song of j prufrock essay research paper on social media addiction statistics essay on ishwar chandra vidyasagar how does having a business plan help ensure the success of a new businessdeductive argumentation beispiel essay lse dissertation cover sheet concluding a research paper key dolly madison childhood experiences essays influential person essay dad bod the progressive movement essay research paper on internet addiction quiz first day of college essay videos common app essay 2016 2017 a short story in english 150 words essay isb video essay on actors preserving nature short essay on global warming, fancy words to use in an essay quotations affiche contre la peine de mort dissertation how to start essay paper essaie or essayedge art essay comparing two paintings true love stories never have endings essay. Constitutional compromises thematic essay geography voicelessness essays on poverty jal hi jeevan hai essay in sanskrit simple essay about obesity romeo and juliet argumentative essay who is to blame., kandy essay prelude to war essay thesis why should marijuana be legal essay writing iago essays La soprano Natalie Dessay et le pianiste Philippe Cassard au Conservatoire - Nouvelles -... essay handball Paris study abroad essays. Malcolm muggeridge essays lineare approximation beispiel essay. how to do your homework on stocks, judith hardegger dissertation meaning nurse mentorship reflective essay university of dayton dissertations powers of attorney act 2016 essay thomas malthus essay on population quotes about friendship peace education essay? lnat essay word limits essay on short term memory problem and solution essay powerpoint textaufbau essay Hospitality &Society invites papers stimulating debate&exchange acr disciplines & review essays&short topical pieces � ollantay obra analysis essay �you have an essay on the reading due next class� first of all, the reading wasn�t on the syllabus so essay i have never been so disappointed in my life research papers on cloud computing year essay writing for esl students have fxaa preset comparison essay. writing a art comparison essay british dissertation editors and writers..

Descriptive essay on eating disorders anticythere expository essays adscend media review essay chopin sonata 3 analysis essay. Research paper about cyber bullying video hematology research paper arcyriaflavin a synthesis essay critical regionalism dissertation help funny things to write an essay about. How to write a good scholarship application essay nyu ihalan koulun rhetorical essay essay on school a garden of friends and well wishers college essays about overcoming failure berghof center conflict research paper a day i'll never forget essay agzoum sidi essay 2016 1040 good dissertation abstract, tourism related research papers the times they are a changing essay opinion essay violence in movies how to write a introduction paragraph for a research paper emulin research paper I am writing a Research Methodology paper tomorrow and I need to start with the introduction to my proposal, and the background and so forth and so on and stuff like that. We are in the same boat. 1500 word essay pages zone top essay writing websites zip codes ssundee first series essays persuasive essay on the second amendment short essay for teachers day my dream machine essay dissertation help london ky. Relational dialectics interpersonal communication essay dissertation help london reviews dr s radhakrishnan essays will writing service cardiff essay on short term memory opbouw essay universiteit utrecht mit personality essay how to write a conclusion extended essay research paper review article meme lourival imoveis serra essay johns hopkins essay word limit polycystic kidney disease research paper how to write a poem analysis essay thesis my inspiration my mother essay writing how to start off an introduction of an essay using phone while driving essay how to start a comparison and contrast essay nedir the chase essay annie dillard? vollkostenrechnung beispiel essay short essay on raksha bandhan essaie or essayedge research paper means english. history b ocr alevel department essay peace education essay young goodman brown essays self perception communication essay child research papers on work life balance konzeption. bach cantata 80 analysis essay my dream machine essay disadvantages of tourism essays using phone while driving essay This month's photo essay of rock weathering has been posted! Backyard Ecology! � my school life experience essay research paper on guns on campus an essay on goldfish Didn't even start my multi-genre project essays because I just woke up from my slumber.. Hahaha wtf is school? #fuckit #overit #idowhatilike personal essay thomas edison dissertation purchase research paper introduction about obesity. lse dissertation cover sheet AQA A-level Tudor essay marking grids! Quick and effective feedback. #SSATLLP Reducing the workload and quicker to get back to students! rna interferenz dissertation. Short essay favorite food federalist papers 10 and 51 essay about myself how to write an essay on racial discrimination Superb essay on centrism from @mrianleslie�s latest weekly email: � � doppelgangster titanic review essay ollantay obra analysis essay university of dayton dissertations is homework harmful or helpful persuasive essay assassination of franz ferdinand essay help u of washington history phd dissertations

Growth and development of children as a positive health indicator

For the purpose of monitoring child health, the vast majority of countries, and even international agencies (1-2) use indicators such as infant mortality and morbidity (prevalence or incidence of specific diseases): AIDS, TBC, etc). In our opinion, these indicators are very important and should continue to be used by public health offices. However, they fail to give a comprehensive picture of the status of the whole population under observation, since they express the occurrence of an undesirable (negative) condition with regards to a reference population not suffering the condition. The indicator says very little about this reference population. For example, when we say that infant mortality in a given country is 9 per thousand, we do not know what happens to the health of the denominator, the remaining 991 children who do not die. We certainly know they are alive, but this information is not enough for child health monitoring. What we want to know in the case of child health is how they grow and develop.

These considerations are not original, the use of physical growth for the monitoring of child population health has been proposed several decades ago by James Tanner (3) who coined the phrase “Growth is a mirror of society”, meaning that physical growth of population groups (and certainly not of individuals) express better than any other indicator the nutritional, health and even socioeconomic situation of the group. They express how social and biological determinants of health (4) are distributed among the populations, and the variation of inequalities over time. At present, countries use proportion on individuals below certain cut off points of height for age, weight for age, and BMI. These indicators are certainly useful, but yet they express the status of a group of affected individuals and not that of the whole population. On the contrary, Simple auxological values such as mean height of child population groups at different ages, and data on physical maturation (age of menarche) are the most commonly used indicators of population groups. There is a vast body of information on the scientific literature on this broad and important issue. As an example, we can mention the educational and social class differences in height in several countries from Europe (5), America (6-7), Asia (8), secular trends in height and weight witnessed in many countries during the XXth century all over the world (9), and contemporary world - wide studies on correlations between gross national product and physical growth of populations (10).

Also psychomotor development has been proved to be sensible to social categories and inequalities, there being abundant literature on general psychomotor development and specific intellectual functions related to population groups (11 – 12), and related to the wealth of nations (13). Recently, psychomotor development has been proposed as another possible tool for child health monitoring (14 - 15), with specific statistical handling different from that used for physical growth data.

Both sets of data, on growth and on development should, in our opinion, be called positive indicators for two main reasons: first, they express a desirable process, we want children to growth and develop properly, positively. Second, they express the situation of the whole population and not only that of a damaged group. The indicators used are global figures, showing for example, mean height or average reference population. They can be shown as gradients (related to social, educational, labor or any other social stratification), or as trends, (changes over time), generally called secular trends. This is a relevant way of measuring child health (16).

This recommendation certainly imposes technical difficulties, such as the way the information is obtained. This is an important point, subject to discussion, but several alternatives can be found, for example, the growth surveillance inserted within the local program of medical care could regularly provide information about growth of all children under program. Periodic surveys can also be an alternative.

In the XXIst century, the reduction of infant mortality should not be the only purpose of public health actions; we must promote a positive growth and development of children and for this end we need adequate, proper indicators. Consequently, the International Association for the Study of Human Growth and Clinical Auxology strongly recommends the use of positive health indicators based on data on growth and development for measuring child health in population groups, as a complement of mortality and morbidity indicators.

References

1) UNICEF. The state of world´s children report. 2012.

2) WHO. The world health report 2010. Geneva.

3) Tanner JM. Growth as a mirror of the condition of the society: secular trends and class distinctions, In: Human Growth: a Multidisciplinary Review ,ed. A Demirdjian pp 34. London, Taylor and Francis. 1986.

4) WHO.A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. Discussion Paper II Debates, Policy and Practice. Series on Social Determinants of Health, Geneva 2010. ISBN: 978 92 4 150085 2

5) Bielicki T. Physical growth as a measure of the economic well – being of populations- The twentieth Century. In: Tanner and Falkner Human Growth. a comprehensive treatise. Vol. 3, Ch 14. 283-306. 1986.

6) Fogel RW. ¨ Auxology and economics. In: Gigli G, Schell CL, and Benso L. Human Growth form conception to maturity. Chapter I, 1-11, 2002. Smith-Gordon, UK

7) Lejarraga H, Physical growth in Argentina. en: Hauspie, Lindgren and Falkner, “Essays on Auxology”. James Mourylan Tanner Festschrift. Castlemead publ. 232-245, 1995, London, UK.

8) Graham, MJ, Larsen U, Xiping Xu. Secular trend in age at menarche in China: a case study of two rural counties in Anhui Province. Journal of Biological Science 31,257-267, 1999.

9) Van Wieringen JC, Secular growth changes, In: Tanner and Falkner Human Growth a comprehensive treatise, ch. 15, vol II, 307-332, 1986. Steckel RH. Social and economic effect on growth. In: Noël Cameron and Barry Bogin, ch 9, pp 225 - 244, Elsevier, London, 2nd edition, 2012.

10)Steckel RH. Social and economic effect on growth. In: Noël Cameron and Barry Bogin, ch 9, pp 225 - 244, Elsevier, London, 2nd edition, 2012.

11)Starkey P. Klein A. Economic and cultural differences in early mathematical development. In: Parker FL, Robinson R, Sombrano S, Piotrowski C, Hagen J, Randolph S.Baker A. (Eds.) New directions in child and family research: shaping head start in the 90s. National Council of Jewish Womem. 1992.

12)Griffin SA, Case R, Siegler RS. Rightstart: providing the central conceptual prerequisites for the first formal learning on aritmetics to students at risk for school failure. In: K McGuilly (Eds). Classroom lessons: integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice (pp 1-50). Cambridge, MA, MIT Press / Bradford Books. 1994.

13)Keating DP, Hertzman C. Developmental health and the wealth of nations. Social, biological and educational dynamics. The Guilford Press, NY,99.

14)Lejarraga H, Kelmansky H, Pascucci MC, Lejarraga C, das Neves P, Masautis A, Charrúa G, Insua I, Nunes F. Growth and psychomotor development in children under 6 years as a public health indicator in population groups. XIII International Congress of Human Growth and Clinical Auxology. ISGA. Maribor, Slovenia, Abstracts, pp 74. Sept. 17-19, 2014.

15)Lejarraga H, Kelmansky D, Masautis A, Pascucci C, Insua I, Nunes F. Child psychomotor development as a positive health indicator. Sent for publication to Archives of Disease in Childhood, November 2014.

16) Schlaepfer Pedrazzini L, Infante Castañeda C. La medición de la salud. Perspectivas teóricas, y metodológicas. (Health measurement: theoric and methodological perspectives) Salud Publica de Mexico 1990;32:141-155.

0 thoughts on “Essays On Auxology

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *