Akala Oxford Union Bibliography Maker

See also: Kenya news

Africa Online
An internet service provider and online service, founded by Kenyan engineers, formerly owned by African Lakes acquired by South African company Telkom SA Ltd., February 2007. http://www.AfricaOnline.com

Africa Policy Institute
Independent, non profit think tank, founded in 2007. Produces reports (Kenya 2017 election, China in Africa). Based in Nairobi, Kenya. https://www.africapi.org/

Africa Regional Sexuality Resource Centre, ARSRC
Funded by the Ford Foundation. Has full text Seminar Papers, full text newsletter, Sexuality in Africa magazine with topics on sexuality and health, religion, violence against women and girls, adolescent education, HIV / AIDS, re-thinking masculinities. Countries of focus are Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. Lists conferences, events. Is compiling a database of Social Scientists, Anthropologists, Researchers. Based in Lagos, Nigeria. http://www.arsrc.org/

African Centre for Economic Growth
"...private non-profit, non-partisan organisation." Provides "...policy advisory services to governments, private sector organisations and leadership groups in local communities." Publications list. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.aceg.org/

African Centre for Technology Studies (Nairobi, Kenya)
"An Institute for Policy Research & Training For Sustainable Development in Africa." "...an international non-governmental policy training and research institute...." The Centre is particularly concerned with environmental issues. Has full text papers in Adobe PDF, the full text of "Governing the Environment," (in Adobe PDF), "What ails Kenya's policy on wildlife?," "What killed our agriculture?," by Prof H.W.O. Okoth-Ogendo, "Enhacing the Arusha Agreement: Environmental Aspects of the Burundi Peace Process" (in Adobe PDF), "Water Tenure and Conflicts in Tanzania" (in MS Word), "Water Rights and Wrongs: State Policies and Local-Level Conflicts in Kenya and Tanzania" (in MS Word). Hosts discussion groups (Ecological Sources of Conflicts). http://www.acts.or.ke

African Economic Research Consortium
Established in 1988, a public not-for-profit organization devoted to advanced policy research and training in economics. Has many full text research reports and other publications. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.aercafrica.org/

African Human Security Initiative
One-year project for seven established African Non-Governmental Organisations "to embark upon a process of benchmarking the performance of key African governments in respect of human security issues, measured against the commitments taken at the level at OAU/AU heads of state meetings." The eight countries being evaluated are Algeria, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Uganda. Full text Project and Background Papers. Full text Monographs and Research Reports. http://www.africanreview.org/

African Journals On-Line
"...offers the tables of contents and abstracts of articles from up to 50 journals in agricultural sciences, science and technology, health and social sciences, published in Africa." A keyword Search covers all journals. A pilot project of the International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications (London), a cooperative network to improve access by developing countries to scientific information. One can order photocopies of articles. http://www.ajol.info/

African Regional Centre for Computing, ARCC
An NGO "to promote the development and usage of computing and communication technologies in Africa, with specific emphasis on Internet Technologies. The initial focus is on Kenya." Provided the first full internet access in Kenya. Dr. Shem Ochuodho is the Executive Director. Based in Nairobi. http://www.arcc.or.ke/

Aguilar, Mario I. & Laurel Birch de Aguilar - Women's Organizing Abilities: Two Case Studies of Kenya and Malawi
"...research project for Organizing for Development, an International Institute [Washington, D.C.]...to compare two cases studies in women's organizing abilities...The purpose of this comparative study is to examine how two separate societies express women's roles in decision-making." http://www.odii.com/Papers/Malawi1.htm

Airlift to America: How Barack Obama Sr., John F. Kennedy, Tom Mboya, and 800 East African Students Changed Their World and Ours. By Tom Shachtman
Site for the book on the “airlift” to U.S. universities, between 1959 and 1963, of 800 young East African students. Among the students was Wangari Maathai, future Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Full text primary documents. Videos - Tom Shachtman & Cora Weiss (former Executive Director of the African American Students Foundation) Library of Congress talk; Cora Weiss talk at the African Studies Association 2009 conference; Reunion of the "Airlift Generation" Nairobi 2007. http://www.airlifttoamerica.org/

Akpan, Uwem - An Ex-mas Feast
New Yorkershort story of a street family in Nairobi, Kenya. Akpan, from Nigeria, is a Jesuit priest. See also an interview with the writer and the New Yorker's deputy fiction editor, Cressida Leyshon. http://www.newyorker.com/fiction/content/articles/050613fi_fiction1

Alliance High School
Famous Kenya secondary school founded "in 1926 by the Alliance of Protestant Missions." Information on alumni, student academics, academic performance, list of past school Heads. Based in Kikuyu , Kenya. http://www.ahs.co.ke/

American University - Study Abroad in Kenya
An Enclave Program is open to non-American University students. Cost c. $4000-5000. http://auabroad.american.edu/enclave/nairobi.cfm

Anglican Church of Kenya

Archival Collections
Billy Graham Center Archives, Wheaton College, IL
Collections on African Christianity from mainly North American Protestant missionaries and some African churches and organizations. Most records are 20th century; 75% concern east or central Africa. An example is the diaries of  Elwood Davis, a physician, in Kenya 1910 to 1949. Collections include those of the Africa Inland Mission and individual missionaries. Its Images of Colonial Africa exhibit are photographs by missionary Laura Collins of Kenya, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), and Uganda in the early 1900s. http://www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/archhp1.html

Malcolm MacDonald Papers
Description of the Papers held in Durham University Library, England. MacDonald was Governor of Kenya 1963-4, High Commissioner for Kenya and involved in diplomatic missions to Nigeria and Zimbabwe. Links to a detailed finding aid for the Papers.

Arid Lands Newsletter
Published by the Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona. The 1994-1996 issues are online. No. 40 (Fall/Winter 1996) has Sibenaler, Alain - Building Partnerships for the CCD: a Success Story from Kenya. CCD is the UN Convention to Combat Desertification. Has links to web resources on desertification. http://ag.arizona.edu/OALS/ALN/ALNHome.html

"...the website of ComMattersKenya Limited, a Nairobi-based arts, culture, communications and media firm...covers fine art, books, music & dance, film, video & television, fashion & beauty, puppetry, storytelling & theatre, entertainment, leisure and lifestyle in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania..." Web magazine founded by Ogova Ondego. Articles on copyright in Kenya, homosexuality, festivals, etc. http://www.artmatters.info/

Article 19 - Kenya, Post Election Political Violence and Freedom of  Expression
Full text of a Dec. 1998 print article. Article 19 is a human rights organization in London. http://www.article19.org/docimages/465.htm

Awaaz (Nairobi, Kenya)

Kenyan journal devoted to South Asians and East Africans in history, arts and politics. "...record the history, and establish linkages with the Indian subcontinent and the South Asian Diaspora in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom." Full text articles - on Pio Gama Pinto, Asian-African relations, The role of minorities in business E.Asia and E.Africa compared, by Prof. Michael Chege, Wangari Maathai Africa’s wonder woman, by Jonathan Kariara, book reviews, etc. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.awaazmag.com

BBC - Kenya Camel Library
BBC report on the impact on education of the Kenyan camel library. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/05/africa_kenyan_camel_library/html/1.stm

BEADS, Beads for Education Advancement, Development and Success
"...supports Maasai women's groups in Kenya and sponsors their daughters education. We now sponsor 145 girls in Kenya who are guaranteed their school fees until their education is completed instead of marrying as young as 13 which is Maasai tradition in Kenya." Based in Ventnor, New Jersey.

Beth, Tim and Lara - Kenya Page
Tim Beth lived in Kenya for 14 years. Site has information on the history, people, language, geography, culture, sports, travel, the national anthem (audio file and sheet music). Includes Swahili sayings, riddles, Swahili translations of Christmas carols and hymns, recipes, graphics of postage stamps, music, etc. http://www.blissites.com/kenya/

Black Star Kenya HipHop Records
Kenyan hiphop and R & B music. Music samples. Send an audio postcard. Site based in Champaign, Illinois. http://www.blackstarkenya.com/

Blixen, Karen (Isak Dinesen) - Karen Blixen Museum
In English and Danish. On the Danish writer who lived in Kenya for 17 years, biography, her works, excerpts from her letters, photographs, and a graphic of a painting of an African girl by Blixen.The Blixen Archives are in Copenhagen. http://www.karen-blixen.dk/

Blixen, Karen - Karen Blixen Museum (Kenya)
"This museum was originally the home of Karen Blixen, who came to Kenya from Denmark in the early part of this century; the present museum site is at the heart of the larger coffee plantation run by Blixen between 1914 and 1931. The house and surrounding land was donated by the Danish government to Kenya at independence; the house was restored by the Danish government and was used during the filming of Out of Africa, which immortalised Karen Blixen's book by the same name." http://www.museums.or.ke/karen/index.html

Blixen, Karen - Isak Dinesen
Site on Blixen by Linda G. Donelson, M.D. who has written a book about Blixen (Out of Isak Dinesen in Africa: Karen Blixen's untold story). Has a chronology, bibliography, many links to other sites about Blixen, her medical history (excerpt from Donelson's book). http://www.karenblixen.com/

Brilliant Image Productions
Established in 2001 in Kenya by Julius Keya, an international filmmaker. Video productions ranging from documentaries, music videos, advertisements, feature films. Videos clips of films. Produced a film on Gacaca (Rwanda). Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.brilliantimageproductions.com

British Pathe Film Archive
A rich video news archive covering historical events, sport, social history and entertainment from 1896 to 1970. Obtain free low resolution video clips after the free registration. High resolution copies for PowerPoint Presentations and Web Publishing require a license fee.* The purpose of the site is mainly educational use. Commercial users who wish to order a videotape or DVD must order through a British Pathe librarian. The original film is 35mm. The free downloaded files may be e-mailed to others. By spring 2003, JPEG images will be available. For best search results, one needs to use a one word search such as Kenya or Nigeria and then look through the entire results. Includes many clips on the Mau Mau, the capture of Dedan Kimathi, Tom Mboya's Funeral, the Lari massacre trial, the 1952 trip to Kenya of Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh, with Sir Philip Mitchell, Governor of Kenya, the 1969 population census in Kenya, 1963 Kenya Independence. http://www.britishpathe.com/flashintro.cfm

* Higher quality hard copy on VHS (PAL format only) can be ordered. "There are three options for purchasing clips; single stories can be bought for £18 each, up to 7 stories costs £75, and 8 or more stories costs £10 each, all inclusive of VAT. Postage and Packing is an additional £2.25 for customers inside the United Kingdom, £10.00 for customers outside the United Kingdom."

Business Kenya
Discussion list (non-profit) to bring together all who have an interest in doing business in East Africa and those who already have running businesses here. It will discuss the many pitfalls & benefits of doing business...." http://www.egroups.com/group/BusinessKenya
Moderator: BusinessKenya-owner@egroups.com
To join, write: BusinessKenya-subscribe@egroups.com

Bwana Zulia
Has a Kenya Travel Guide (accomodations, travel tips, shopping, books, etc.) http://www.bwanazulia.com/

Cana Publising U.K. Ltd.
"...an independent, not-for-profit Christian publishing house." Its "...primary mission is to develop, publish, promote and distribute excellent, culturally appropriate spiritual books that proclaim the Gospel and strengthen the church and society in Africa." Founded by David Waweru. Based in England. http://www.canapublishinguk.com/

Capital FM, 98.4 FM
Nairobi radio station. Has a top 25 list. http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/

CARE in Kenya
Basic information on Kenya, describes CARE projects in Kenya. http://www.care.org/programs/country_profile.cfm?ID=124

Carolina for Kibera

Central Bank of Kenya
Has full Monthly Economic Reviews from 2001 to date and the Annual Reports. http://www.centralbank.go.ke/

Chemchemi Ya Ukweli, CYU / Wellspring of Truth
"...an interfaith peace movement concerned about the growing violence in Kenya." "created in October 1997 to train civil society leaders in Active-Non Violence (ANV)." Online issues of their newsletter. http://www.chemchemi.org/

Chu, Jenny - Images of Africa
Photographs from Angola, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sierra Leone and Somalia taken in 2002 on relief activities of the International Medical Corps. The IMC site has additional photographs. http://home.earthlink.net/~jechu/africacover.html

Cities/Buildings Archive
A online digital image archive of cities and buildings around the world. Includes Kenya (traditional granaries, houses, church). All files on this site are copyright controlled. Maintained by Meredith Clausen, Professor of Architectual History, Univ. of Washington, Seattle. Prof.  Simon Ottenberg is Africa section consultant and his collection of images will be added. http://www.washington.edu/ark2/

Reuters and AP wire stories on Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Sudan, Rwanda. Open to subscribers only; many U.S. universities subscribe. This Usenet newsgroup was created November 1995.

Coalition on Violence Against Women (COVAW) - Kenya
"...non-partisan, secular, feminist network of individuals and organizations who are committed to eradicating violence against women." Based in Nairobi. http://www.nbnet.co.ke/covaw

COMESA, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
"COMESA [formerly the PTA] exists as an organisation of free independent sovereign states which have agreed to co-operate in developing their natural and human resources for the good of all their people'. With its 19 member states and population of 300 million it forms a major integrated trading block." Has information on customs tariffs by country, road/transport including road distances, economic profiles for each country (Angola, Burundi, Comoros, D.R. Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe) etc. Has the text of Doing Business with COMESA: the Handbook, legal guides to establishing business, etc. http://www.comesa.int/

Communications Commission of Kenya
Regulates telecommunications services, postal service, fixed and mobile phone operations, internet service providers, radio & TV. License fees, speeches, contact addresses, etc. http://www.cck.go.ke/

Constitution of Kenya Review Commission
In English and Kiswahili. Extensive site with many full text documents. Historical background to Kenya's Constitution, academic essays on the Constitution, the Constitution as it was in 1963, the Constitution (as of 2002), the issues to be discussed in public hearings, reports of the public hearings, discussion papers by Kenyan professors, public lectures, issues regarding gender, minorities, the disabled, submissions by political groups, civil society groups. Commission Chairman is Professor Professor Yash Pal Ghai. http://www.kenyaconstitution.org/

Coral Reefs - Action Atlas
Site by Mother Jones magazine and the Coral Reef Alliance in Berkeley, California on endangered coral reefs in Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Comoros, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mauritius, and Reunion.
Main page: http://www.motherjones.com/coral_reef/
African coral reefs: http://www.motherjones.com/coral_reef/indian_ocean.html

Crawfurd, Jacob
Jacob Crawfurd's 100 photographs of Cameroon, East Africa slide show and video clips, a panorama photograph of the valley in Bafang, Cameroon, plus a few 1937 historical photographs (no captions). Crawfurd, from Denmark, also heads JCJ Film, a one-man production company producing documentaries and short features. Learn about his video short story, Low Tide, with the Kizingo Arts Troupe, a group of 25 young Kenyan artists based in Mombasa, who perform Malaika. http://crawfurd.dk/africa

"A Monthly e-zine Reporting on Kenya and Kenyans." Has a directory of web sites on Kenya. Includes a directory of Kenyan companies, organizations, Kenyan worldwide social calendar, commentary on issues, educational opportunities, death and funeral announcements, jobs, etc. Maintained by a Kenyan in Dayton, NJ. http://www.cyber-africa.net

Daraja Academy
"...free all-girls secondary school" located near Mt. Kenya. Students come from the Nairobi slums, Northern ethnic groups (Samburu, Turkana, Maasai) and the local community around the school – The Likipia Plateau. Founded by the Carr Educational Foundation, based in San Rafael, California. http://daraja-academy.org/

De Souza, Ruth - The Indian Diaspora in Africa
History of South Asians in East Africa. Articles, links to related sites. De Souza was born in East Africa. She is a Senior Research Fellow at Auckland University of Technology's Centre for Asian and Migrant Health Research. Based in Waitakere City, New Zealand. http://www.wairua.com/ruth/culture/africa.html

East African Community
Site takes a while to load. "The East African Community (EAC) is the regional intergovernmental organisation of the Republics of Kenya, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania..." Has the full text of the Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community, press releases, speeches, statistics databases, staff directory. Based in Arusha, Tanzania. http://www.eachq.org/

East, Central and Southern African (ECSA) Health Community
Promotes regional cooperation in health. Formerly the Commonwealth Regional Health Community for East, Central and Southern Africa. Members are Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Lesotho, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Mauritius, and Bostwana. Has some full text reports such as Challenges Facing the Malawian Health Workforce in the Era of HIV/AIDS and Challenges facing the Kenyan Health Workforce in the era of AIDS. Based in Arusha, Tanzania. http://www.crhcs.or.tz/

Eastern Africa Journal of Humanities & Sciences (Nairobi, Kenya)
Published by the Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Department of Research, Nairobi, Kenya. Full text articles. http://bij.hosting.kun.nl/esap/selectuniversity.php?univ=cuea&PHPSESSID=7da04c2326697cb509798538b6093816

Full text articles, in Adobe pdf, include:
Jane K. Onsongo, "The Life Approach Method in Teaching Christian Religious Education in Secondary Schools"
Paul A. Ogula, "The Evaluation Experience of Primary and Secondary Education Projects in Kenya"
Catherine N. Machyo, "The Catholic Church and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Kenya: An Exploration of Issues"
Book Review:
Kennedy M. Moindi, "Building on the Indigenous: Selected Essays 1981-1998," by Bethwell A Ogot

Eastern Arc Mountains Information Source
"The Eastern Arc Mountains are a chain of mountains in Kenya and Tanzania that are influenced by the Indian Ocean...These mountains are recognized as one of 24 globally important 'hot spots' for forest biodiversity according to Conservation International." Has a directory of organizations (Kenya, Tanzania, U.S.), map with links to photographs and reports. Part of the Bugwood Network hosted by the University of Georgia and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service. http://www.easternarc.org/

EcoFarm Holidays
"Under EcoFarm Holidays, you shall be hosted by ordinary Kenyan families, with whom you shall cook, go fishing and even engage in leisurely work on the coffee or tea farm during your stay in their farmhouse and home area." "will organize for you a homestay holiday in any part of Kenya. Our principal destination is Kiamariga, an idyllic farming hamlet at the edge of the Mount Kenya Forest." http://www.ibbp.com/obb/ecofarms.html

A non-profit importer and reseller of sandals produced by the Wikyo Akala Project funded entirely by the work of volunteers. Proceeds benefit Kenyans in shantytowns. Based in Ann Arbor, MI and Nairobi. http://www.ecosandals.com/

Ekegusii Dictionary Project
Open source online Ekegusii-English dictionary. Ekegusii is the language of the Gusii in Kenya. Site founded by a student at Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S. http://www.ekegusii.org

Election 2007
Mwai Kibaki. Site is gone; it was the site for the December 2007 Presidential Election bid of incumbent President Kwai Kibaki. Includes the Party Manifesto (64 p. in PDF). http://www.kibaki.co.ke/
See also Mwai Kibaki's blog - http://kibakiupdate.wordpress.com/ and Zinduka, a web site aimed at Kenyan youth. http://www.zinduka.co.ke/
Kalonzo Musyoka. Site is gone, was for the December 2007 Presidential Election bid.
Raila Odinga. Site has closed, was created for the December 2007 Presidential Election bid of Raila Odinga.
Kenya Votes 2007 - voter information site from the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (Washington, D.C.). Has party manifestos, up-to-date news, candidate lists, candidates’ stances on important issues, party platforms, general voter and election information, and videos, etc. http://kenyavotes.org
Election Commentary. http://zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/2007-kenya-elections-holding-nation-hostage-bankrupt-political-class
Pambazuka - January 4, 2008 http://www.pambazuka.org/

Orange Democratic Movement
Site is gone, was for the political party led by Raila Odinga. http://www.odm07.com/ Has a Facebook page.

Election 2002
Institute for Education in Democracy
An NGO "to promote democracy through programmes in the electoral process, voter education, research and dissemination programmes." Has detailed 2002 election information (parliamentary seats by province, turnout by province, charts, number of registered voters by constituency, electoral law changes, a 49 page report (in Adobe pdf) on Registration of Voters in 2002). Includes a report, Political Party Organisation and Management in Kenya. An Audit. (86 pages, 1998, in Adobe pdf). Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.iedafrica.org/

Election 2002 - Candidates
Kenyatta, Uhuru - Uhuru Kenyatta for President Forum
Site has closed. Comments on the candidates, parties. http://www.uhurukenyatta.com/web/forums/

Expression Today, The journal of Human Rights, Democracy and the Media (Nairobi)
Takes a while to load. Older articles, political analysis, literature, female circumcision. http://www.kenyanews.com/eXpression/

[Finke] Jens Finke's Traditional Music & Cultures of Kenya
Essays on Kenya's peoples, cultures, fables and legends, music (has audio clips), role of missionaries in present day Kenya. Includes bibliographies, photographs. Features Luo artist, Hezbon Owiti. The section on the Kikyuyu covers the Mau Mau, circumcision. http://www.bluegecko.org/kenya

France. Embassy. Kenya
In English and French. Ambassador's profile, visa information. Includes information on French - Kenya relations, the French Institute of Research in Africa (FIRA), French associations in Kenya. http://www.ambafrance-ke.org/

Freedom in Speech
Issues affecting the gay community in Kenya, the Kenyan diaspora. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.freedominspeech.org/

Friends of Kenya
"Friends of Kenya / Marafiki Wa Kenya (FOK) is a non-profit organization begun at the initiative of Returned Peace Corps Volunteers and Staff who served in Kenya." ".....support for human welfare and nature conservation projects has been among FOK's guiding objectives." Has selected articles from past issues of its newsletter, motomoto, online. Based in Ottawa, Ohio. http://www.friendsofkenya.org/

Geider, Thomas - A Bibliography of Swahili Literature, Linguistics, Culture and History
Full text online. In Adobe pdf, 101 pages. No. 10, 2003 of the online journal Swahili Forum, published at the Department of Anthropology and African Studies, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. http://www.uni-mainz.de/~ifeas/SwaFo/

Greater Horn of Africa Initiative
"...a U.S. foreign policy initiative launched in 1994 in order to address the recurring cycle of crisis, instability and famine in the Greater Horn of Africa region..." Old site; some pages gone. Covers Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda. http://www.usaid.gov/regions/afr/ghai/

Green Belt Movement (Nairobi, Kenya)
An NGO founded in 1977 by Wangari Maathai (Ph.D). Focuses on environmental conservation and community development. Runs Green Belt Safaris Ltd. providing eco tourism. See also: Wangari Maathai. http://www.greenbeltmovement.org/

Harambee Schools Kenya
"UK registered charity working with rural Kenyan communities to improve educational standards and opportunities through the funding of construction projects and the provision of educational materials." Includes photographs, information on the Kenya education system, descriptions of individual schools. Based in the U.K. http://www.hsk.org.uk

Pages take a while to load. Kenya health news, will add other features. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.healthkenya.com

Heinrich Boll Foumdation. Regional Office for the East & Horn of Africa - [Kenya]
Its main programs are on Gender, the Environment and Conflict and Dialogue. Its partners are in the Horn of Africa, Kenya, Uganda. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.hbfha.com/

Full text reports include -
Somalia’ s Transition: The Role of Senior Professionals and Scholars (16 p. in PDF)
A New Path? 2002. (359 pages in PDF) - covers historical background, democratic governance, economic governance, environment consequences, role of women, regional integration. Authors include Adebayo Adedeji, Archie Mafeje, Thandika Mkandawire, Yash Tandon, Horace Campbell, Peter Anyang' Nyong'o and others.
The Study of African Politics. A Critical Appreciation of a Heritage. By Peter Anyang' Nyong'o. 2002. (114 pages in PDF)
Law, the Social Sciences and the Crisis of Relevance: A Personal Account. By Dani Nabudere. 2001. (African Social Scientists Reflections, Part 2.) (137 pages in PDF) - includes law in African colonies, the post-colonial state, the Dar es Salaam School, legal education, African Studies (afrocentricity), Nabudere's law student days in the early 1960s and activist law career in Uganda.
Anthropology in Post-Independence Africa: End of an Era and the Problem of Self-Redefination. By Archie Mafeje. 2001. (African Social Scientists Reflections, Part 1.) (79 pages in PDF)
WTO - Agreement on Agriculture: Impact of Liberalisation and Globalisation of Agricultural World Trade upon Sustainable Agriculture and Development in Kenya
(15 p. in PDF) - dumping of maize, sugar in Kenya
Gender and Constitution-Making in Kenya. 2002 (71 p. in PDF)
Gender Gaps in Our Constitutions: Women's concerns in selected African Countries. 2002 (119 p. in PDF) - women in Kenya, Ethiopia, Somaliland, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda, Zimbabwe.

Hip Hop Colony
Documentary film by Michael Wanguhu on the Hip Hop movement in Kenya. Movie trailer. http://www.hiphopcolony.com

Human Flower Project
"...an international newsgroup, photo album and discussion of how people live through flowers." Use the Search box to find references to flowers and Africa, such as the Kenya flower industry. Maintained by Julie Ardery, a writer in Austin, Texas. http://www.humanflowerproject.com

Human Rights Watch - Ballots to Bullets: Organized Political Violence and Kenya's Crisis of Governance
Full text report. Map. Pub. March 2008. "The scale and speed of the violence that engulfed Kenya following the controversial presidential election of December 27, 2007 shocked both Kenyans and the world at large...The ethnic divisions laid bare in the aftermath of the elections have roots that run much deeper than the presidential poll." http://hrw.org/reports/2008/kenya0308/

Human Rights Watch - Double Standards: Women’s Property Rights Violations in Kenya
54-page report, published March 2003, "...examines the devastating impact of women’s property rights
violations in Kenya, where the constitution condones discrimination in property matters." Topics include Marriage Laws and Practices, Women's Status in Kenya, HIV/AIDS and Women in Kenya, Customary Laws Today, Wife Inheritance and Ritual Cleansing. Has links to Resources on Women’s Property Rights. http://hrw.org/reports/2003/kenya0303/

Human Rights Watch - Kenya Spare the Child: Corporal Punishment in Schools
Full text of a Sept. 1999 Human Rights Watch report. http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/kenya/index.htm
Also use the HRW Search to locate the Kenya sections of their annual world reports and abstracts of reports for sale.

Human Rights Watch - Playing with Fire. Weapons Proliferation, Political Violence, and Human Rights in Kenya
May 2002. Full text report, in Adobe pdf and in html. "Speaking for the first time, perpetrators of armed attacks in the run-up to the last general election in Kenya have said that they were backed by ruling party officials." http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/kenya/

Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission
"...responsible for conducting or supervising referenda and elections to any elective body or office established by the Constitution, and any other elections as prescribed by an Act of Parliament...”  Voter rights, political parties list, election results, election laws, election reports. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.iebc.or.ke/

Institut de recherche pour le développement. Laboratoire de cartographie appliquée (Bondy, France)
In French. Publishes printed maps, atlases, cdroms. On-line maps can be downloaded. Maps include African immigrants in the European Union, African immigration to the European Union, population and economic disparities between North / South, refugees. Has SPHAERA, a database of citations to African maps from sources world-wide; the same citations can be accessed through a clickable map. There is a catalog of maps produced by the IRD. Provides a GIS software program, Savane. Savane has been used by workers in refugee camps in Kenya, Bamako, Mali, and Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. The IRD, l’Institut de recherche pour le développement, was (formerly ORSTOM), based in Paris, France. http://www.bondy.ird.fr/carto/labo.html

Full text publications on-line include - Reports on refugee camps in Kenya and on refugees and the environment in Kenya and Uganda.

Institute for Education in Democracy
Has full text reports (such as East African Bribery Index 2013), Kenya Government Acts, etc.  Partners with the UN, European Union, USAID etc. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://iedafrica.org/

Institute of Advanced Technology
Private computer training. Is registered with the Directorate of Industrial Training (Kenya). Microsoft, Cisco training. Bachelor's degree in computing and internet systems. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.iat.co.ke/

Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (Nairobi)
"...established in 1994 as an independent, indigenous and non-partisan private organisation. It is a non-profit body whose primary goal is to pursue quality research-based public policy analysis and to generate non-partisan discussion focused on Kenya and the region." Full text Policy Briefs, abstracts or full text (in .zip form) for Discussion Papers and Occasional Papers. Topics include health care, interest rates, poverty reduction, education, marketing maize, etc. http://www.ipar.or.ke/

Inter-Church Coalition on Africa, ICCAF(Toronto)
"...a coordinated response by Canadian Churches to promote social and economic justice in Sub-Saharan Africa.....Three over-arching themes permeate ICCAF's work: Human Rights, Economic Justice, and the Media Image of Africans." Has reports on Angola, Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, Women's Rights. Offers free e-mail reports Based in Toronto, Canada. http://www.web.net/~iccaf/

Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
Formerly the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) which was created in 1986 by Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda to co-ordinate development in the Horn of Africa. The State of Eritrea became the seventh member of IGADD in September 1993 after its independence. Has press releases. Based in Djibouti. http://igad.int/

International Commission of Jurists - Kenyan Section
Press statements regarding human rights issues, their Newsletter, the full text of some reports such as "Judicial Reform And Administration Of Justice In Kenya: The Way Forward" (72 p. in Adobe pdf), the full text of Bills such as "The Access To Information Bill 2000," "The Analysis Of The Privatization Bill, 2004" and a directory of important Kenya NGOs. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.icj-kenya.org/

International Documentation Network on the Great African Lakes Region
International inter-university program (based in Geneva, Switzerland) to collect "grey literature" on the economic, social, and political aspects of Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda,  Tanzania, and Congo-Kinshasa. The documents, on cd-rom, are sold thru subscription. http://www.unige.ch/iued/grandslacs/welcome.html

International Labor Rights Fund (Washington, D.C.)
A labor rights group working to ban cocoa imports from Cote d'Ivoire because of child labor / child slavery used in Cote d'Ivoire cocoa production. Has a May 2002 report on "Violence against women in the workplace in Kenya" concerning sexual harassment in the manufacturing sector. http://www.laborrights.org/

International Monetary Fund
Official site. Has information on the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF). Locate full text reports on Kenya. Use their Search to find actions by the IMF affecting Kenya. http://www.imf.org/

International Resource Group on Disarmament and Security in the Horn of Africa (IRG)
"...an effort to engage civil society groups and individuals in exploring alternative approaches to security policy." Has full text reports on the Horn of Africa, Kenya, Somalia, Somaliland, Sudan, Uganda. From Project Ploughshares, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, Waterloo, Canada. http://www.ploughshares.ca/content/BUILD%20PEACE/IRG.html

International School of Kenya
Formerly the Nairobi International School. Provides K-12 education. The site has a brief history, information on their Rafiki Club Newsletter, a directory of students and faculty, present and past. The directory is very long;don't print this unless you have lots of paper in your printer. http://www.africaonline.co.ke/AfricaOnline/isk/iskhomepage.html

International Resource Group on Disarmament and Security in the Horn of Africa (IRG)
"...an effort to engage civil society groups and individuals in exploring alternative approaches to security policy." Has full text reports on the Horn of Africa military profiles, Kenya, Somalia, Somaliland, Sudan, Uganda, "Civil-Military Relations in Kenya." From Project Ploughshares, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, Waterloo, Canada. http://www.ploughshares.ca/content/BUILD%20PEACE/IRG.html

International Writing Program, University of Iowa
Has biographies of African writers participating in the famous Univ. of Iowa program along with samples of their writing. The 1996 African writers are - from Togo, Adovi John-Bosco Adotevi, from Kenya Serah Wanjiru Mwangi and Monica Nalyaka Wanambisi.
Mwangi: http://www.uiowa.edu/~iwp/mwangi.htm
Wanambisi: http://www.uiowa.edu/~iwp/wanambis.htm
Main Page: http://www.uiowa.edu/~iwp/

Inter-University Council for East Africa
"...a regional inter-govermental organisation whose mission is to encourage and develop mutually beneficial collaboration between universities in East Africa, and between them and governments and other organisations, both public and private." Full text reports on education. Has a scholarship program. Applicants must be resident citizens and other residents of Kenya, Tanzania, or Uganda. Sponsors the East African Network of University Libraries. http://www.iucea.org/

In Luo. http://www.jaluo.com/

Atlanta, Georgia company which supplies Kenya magazines (Eve, True Love) to U.S. subscribers. http://www.k-select.com/

[Kaplan] Marion Kaplan - Photographs
Kaplan writes - "Born in London, I lived as photojournalist and writer in Africa for twenty years."  Includes photos of arab dhows, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, political figures (Bokassa, Haile Selassie, Jomo Kenyatta, Idi Amin), wild animals, George Adamson. http://www.marionkaplan.com/

"Kasarani.com brings Kenyans together, young and old, at home and in the diaspora." "a social network for Kenyans by Kenyans." http://www.kasarani.com/

A discussion group on the transfer of technology (esp. computer technology) to Kenya. To subscribe, send e-mail to: listmgr@africaonline.com
In the message area, put: subscribe kci-net

Kemps International Film and TV Production Services Directory
"...search for over 35,000 production services companies from 65 countries worldwide....find everything from Aerial Photography to Video Equipment, Location Services, Crew and much more." Extensive directory of South African companies and some Nigeria, Kenya companies. Produced by the publishers of the annual, Kemps international film & television year book (London). http://www.kftv.com/

Kenya African National Union (KANU)
Political party of former Presidents Jomo Kenyatta, Daniel Arap Moi. The party's history, structure, constitution, manifesto, KANU branch directory, KANU members of parliament, election statistics, etc. http://www.kanuonline.com/

Kenya Agricultural Research Institute
Full text reports, the Highlighter newsletter, etc. http://www.kari.org/

Kenya AIDS NGO Consortium, KANCO
A "...national membership network of NGOs, CBOs and Faith Based Organizations involved or [with an] interest in HIV & AIDS activities in Kenya." Based in Nairobi. http://www.kanco.org/

Kenya Airways
"Since privatisation in 1996, Kenya Airways has emerged as a highly competetive international airline. The Kenyan government retains a significant interest in its national carrier while KLM Royal Dutch Airlines is the largest individual shareholder with a 26 per cent stake in the company." http://www.kenya-airways.com

Kenya Association of Manufacturers
Established 1959. The KAM Directory is a database of Kenyan companies by sector and geographic location. Based in Nairobi. http://www.kam.co.ke/

Kenya. Attorney General
Based in Nairobi. http://www.attorney-general.go.ke/

Online Social & Commercial Notice Board. Classified ads for goods and services. Personals (Friends & Partners). http://www.kenyabazaar.com

Kenya Broadcasting Corporation
News, the Nairobi Stock Exchange, weather. Listen to news in Swahili. Information about Kenya TV and radio. "Kenya Broadcasting Corporation is a state corporation established by an Act of Parliamen...to undertake public services." http://www.kbc.co.ke/

Kenya. National Bureau of Statistics
Has some full text documents - Highlights of the Preliminary Results of KDHS 2003 (Kenya Demographic and Health Survey), final report of the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2003, Key Findings of the Kenya DHS 2003, Press Releases, statistics on Tourism, Health, Agriculture, Energy (lighting, cooking fuel), Inflation Rate, the Economic Survey 2004 (in Powerpoint), etc. http://www.knbs.or.ke/

Kenya. Commission of Inquiry into the Illegal / Irregular Allocation of Public Land.
Report. Chairman: Paul Ndungu.. Nairobi: June 2004. 3 vols. Vol. 1 - 244 p. Vols. 2 (976 p.) and 3 (797 p.) are Annexes. Concerns the illegal giving of public land by previous Kenya government officials - an estimated over 200,000 illegal allocations since independence in 1963.

See Oxfam (U.K.)'s site on East African land issues - http://www.oxfam.org.uk/what_we_do/issues/livelihoods/landrights/africa_east.htm
Includes the following report and many others. The Ndungu Report: Land & Graft in Kenya. Source: Review of African Political Economy, Vol.32, No.103, March 2005, pp.142-51. (Roger Southall)

Kenya. Constitution, 2010
From the KenyaLaw.org site. 194 pages in PDF. BBC article August 27, 2010 - http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-11106558

Kenya. Department of Film Services
Licenses local and international film makers. Providing liaison services. Produces newsreels, documentaries, features, TV ads in English and Kenyan languages such as Dunia ni mbaya (on HIV/AIDS education). Maintains a national film archive of over 600 documentaries. . Has a directory of accredited local agents who will facilitate location scouting, transport, hotel reservations, film licenses, shipping, etc. Under the Ministry of Information and Communications. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.filmservices.go.ke/

Kenya. Department of Immigration

Kenya. Department of Refugee Affairs

Kenya Diaspora Network
"...a non-political organization whose primary objective is to support the Kenyan Government development efforts by aligning the resources and inherent knowledge of Kenyan Organizations in the Diaspora with the Government's Economic Recovery Plan (GERP) and with the Donors' Country Assistance Plans. The Network was recently formed at the behest of the Kenyan government in conjunction with the World Bank Institute and Western Hemisphere African Diaspora Network (WHADN-an initiative of the AU)." Based in Mclean, Virginia. http://www.kenyadiaspora.org/

Kenya Elections

Kenya Elections -  December 1997
See the BBC's coverage: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/special_report/for_christmas/_new_year/kenyan_elections/newsid_41000/41786.stm

Kenya. Embassy. Washington, D. C.
Official Page. Has information on the Kenya embassies, economy, education, basic facts, visa/travel information. http://www.kenyaembassy.com/

Kenya Guide
Has an automated Kenya e-mail directory. Facts about Kenya, audio file of the national anthem with words in English and Swahili, tourism information, etc. Maintained by Urvi Shah. http://www.kenyaguide.co.uk

Kenya High Commission in Canada
Based in Ottawa. http://www.kenyahighcommission.ca/

Kenya High Commission - United Kingdom

Kenya Human Rights Commission
"...a non-partisan, non-profit making, membership non-governmental organization based in Nairobi, Kenya." Describes their programmes, publications. Has some full text reports such as Challenging Conditions: Strategies Toward Reform Of The Sugar Sector. Offers internships. http://www.khrc.or.ke/

Has full text of Promotion & Protection of all Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social & Cultural Rights, Including the Rights to Development. Report of the Special Rapporteur....Philip Alston. A report submitted to the United Nations, May 2009. 45 pages in PDF

"The Special Rapporteur visited Kenya from 16 to 25 February 2009 in order to ascertain the types and causes of unlawful killings; to investigate whether those responsible for such killings are held to account; and to propose constructive measures to reduce the incidence of killings and impunity. The main focus was on killings by the police, violence in the Mt. Elgon District, and killings in the post-election period."

Kenya Indy Media
"The kenya indymedia center is a non-commercial, democratic collective of bay area independent media makers and media outlets, and serves as the local organizing unit of the global Indymedia network." Current news, commentary. Also receive by email weekly summaries of headlines.

Kenya Institute of Management
Founded in 1954, "...aims to enhance management knowledge and practice in both the public and private sector." sponsors Company of the Year Awards (2001 winners) and an annual Tom Mboya Lecture, publishes the Management Journal. http://www.kim.ac.ke/

Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis
"...an autonomous public institute...to provide quality public policy advice to the government of Kenya and to the private sector by conducting objective research and analysis, and through capacity building, in order to contribute to the achievement of national development goals." Full text documents on-line but free registration is required. http://www.kippra.org/

Kenya. Judicial Commission Appointed to Inquire into Tribal Clashes in Kenya
Report. Chairman. Justice A. M. Akiwumi."A report has recommended that prominent current and former Kenyan ministers be investigated for their alleged roles in tribal clashes. The clashes took place in the run-up to elections in 1992 and 1997 and left thousands dead. The report was submitted to the government in 1999, but only released on Friday after a court ordered the government to make its findings public." - BBC article, October 18, 2002.

Kenya Law Reports
Database of case law, election petitions, full text of Kenya laws, bills. "official website of the National Council for Law Reporting (Kenya), a public body established under the National Council for Law Reporting Act (Act No. 11 of 1994). The mandate of the Council is to publish the Kenya Law Reports which contain the judicial opinions of the superior courts of record." http://www.kenyalaw.org/

Includes text of the Kenya Gazette from 1906 which is actually from books.google.com

Kenya Meteorological Department
Forecasts. Home of the Institute for Meteorological Training and Research. Shows Telecommunication Network Circuits. Sea wind forecasts. etc. http://www.meteo.go.ke/

Kenya. Ministry of Agriculture
Has full text documents (Strategic Plan 2008-2012. 84 pages in PDF, Economic Review of Agriculture 2009 etc.). http://www.kilimo.go.ke/

Kenya. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
Extensive education statistics, full text documents. Based in Nairobi. http://www.education.go.ke/

Kenya. Ministry of Finance

Kenya Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Official site. Kenya's foreign policy, history (past foreign ministers and permanent secretaries), public holidays, facts about Kenya with a clickable map, brief political history, presidential profiles, words and an audio file of the national anthem, diplomatic missions in Kenya, Kenya's missions abroad, list of treaties, full text of Presidential speeches, the Foreign Affairs Bulletin. The FAQ has information on visa requirements. http://www.mfa.go.ke/

Kenya. Ministry of Health

Kenya. Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology

Kenya. Ministry of Home Affairs, Office of the Vice President

Kenya. Ministry of Immigration and Registration of Persons

Kenya. Ministry of Information and Communications

Kenya. Ministry of Planning and National Development
Speeches, press releases, full text policy documents. Sponsors investment conferences. http://www.planning.go.ke/

Kenya National Academy of Sciences
The mission of Kenya National Academy of Science (KNAS) is "to promote acquisition, dissemination and application of scientific knowledge and technology for National development." Site registered by Ken J. Wagner of Orem, Utah. http://www.knas.g3z.com

Kenya National Archives. Mashujaa Wetu: Heroes of the Kenyan Nation
Slide show of Kenyan history. Use your computer's arrow keys to navigate. Text and photographs from the Kenya National Archives. Hosted by Google's Cultural Institute. 

Kenya National Commission on Human Rights
"...an autonomous National Human Rights Institution established by an Act of Parliament in 2002." http://www.knchr.org/

Has full text reports such as -
The Malindi Inquiry Report 2006 - 200 pages in PDF
An Evening with Tom Mboya - 46 pages in PDF
Nguzo za Haki - the Commission's magazine. Some issues are online.

Kenya National Library Service
Has a directory of libraries, produces the Kenya National Bibliography which can be purchased. Is the distributor of ISBN numbers. Its camel mobile library service operates in North Eastern Province. http://www.knls.or.ke/

Discussion group which is only open to East Africans; this is a high volume list and may get 100 messages a day. The annual fee is $20. To subscribe, send a request to: owner-kenya-net@africaonline.com

Kenya Network Information Centre, KENIC
Non-profit in charge of registration for the .ke domain. Use the whois to locate domain owners. The .ke top level domain was originally administered by Dr. Shem Ochuodho of ARCC and by Randy Bush (technical contact). Based in Nairobi. http://www.kenic.or.ke/

Kenya. Office of the Presient. e-Government
Directs you to Kenya information on starting a business in Kenya. Information on citizenship, taxes, the civil service. education. http://www.e-government.go.ke/

Kenya Page of Richard Bowen
Has the flag, national anthem (audio file), biographical information on President Daniel A. Moi and Jomo Kenyatta, recipes, an active discussion group, an email database, facts about the government, economy, people, cities, photos, a guestbook. Lists internet service providers in Kenya. Maintained by R. Bowen. http://www.rcbowen.com/kenya/

Kenya. Prime Minister's Office

Kenya Revenue Authority
Official site. "...established on 1st July 1995 by an act of Parliament. The authority is charged with the responsibility of collecting revenue on behalf of the government." Its divisions are Income Tax, Value Added Tax (VAT), Customs and Excise, Road Transport Division. Information on importing goods, the export promotion program, a Guide to Investment Deductions, tenders, etc. http://www.revenue.go.ke/

Kenya Scholars and Studies Association, KESSA
"...independent nonprofit professional Association established in...Ohio...purpose of advancing scholarly, scientific, and research work on the Republic of Kenya. Its membership is drawn from all disciplines..." http://kessa.org/

Kenya School Of Law
"...a Semi Autonomous Government Agency" Established in 1963. Organizes and conducts courses for the development of legal professionals; conducts courses for Government personnel on the general understanding of the law and organizes Para-legal courses and programmes. Based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.ksl.ac.ke

Kenya Socialist Democratic Alliance, KSDA
In English and Swahili. Opposition alliance. "represents an Alliance of democratic forces whose main objective is the democratic overthrow of capitalism in Kenya and it's democratic replacement with a democratic socialist political system of Government." Alliance programme, history, articles, news, speeches, interviews (audio interviews with Raila Odinga and others), and a list of "State Enterprises Listed for Privatisation in Kenya". Web site based in Stockholm, Sweden. [CA] http://www.kenyasocialist.org

Kenya. Statehouse
Official site. Kenya profile, press releases, directory of Kenyan diplomatic missions, government directory, speeches, President's profile, photo essays, words and history of the national anthem in English and Kiswahili, commentary by the Director Presidential Press Service. http://www.statehousekenya.go.ke/

Kenya. Teachers Service Commission
Established by the Kenya Parliament in 1967. Its mandate is to "recruit, employ, assign, pay, promote, transfer and exercise powers conferred on the Commission by the Code of Regulations for teachers on all public school." Based in Nairobi. http://www.tsc.go.ke/

Kenya: the Top 100 People (April 1998)
Site by Indigo Publications (Paris) to promote their reference book ($330); the complete biographies are only available thru payment. Partial biographies are available on the site. http://www.africaintelligence.com/dossiers/aia/dos_aia_gp_ken.asp
Indigo Publications provides some free information:

Presidential & Parliamentary Election Results (Dec. 1997)
Final Report of the Donors' Democratic Development Group (on the 1997 elections)
Government Offices and Officials (directory)
National Assembly (MPs by province and party)
Kenyan Diplomatic Missions
Kenya Association of Manufacturers (Exec.Committee)

Kenya. Vice President


Internet service provider / directory of information on Kenya (business, trade, tourism, education. Has directories of government officials with addresses for each ministry, directories of NGOs, U.N. agencies and diplomatic missions in Kenya, yellow pages, a business directory, trade unions, Kenya's history from early man to the present, tourism, hotels. Has the words (in English / Swahili) of the national anthem. Launched Nov. 1996 in Nairobi. http://www.kenyaweb.com/

Kenya Wildlife Service
Describes the national parks includes historical background, biodiversity / conservation programs. http://www.kenya-wildlife-service.org

Kenya Youth Movement in Sweden (Farsta, Sweden)
Publishes Harakati, a newsletter, has press releases, statements. Is opposed to the present government of Kenya. http://www.angelfire.com/ky/kyms/harakati4.html

Kenyan American Professional's Association
"...focuses on guest speaker events, career and professional development programs..." Covers the area of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Pennsylvania. Photographs of events. Based in Bedminster, New Jersey. http://www.kapa-us.org/

Kenyan Community Abroad
"KCA is a socio-political non-partisan organization, registered in the states of Pennsylvania and Minnesota..., and composed primarily of Kenyans living outside Kenya. KCA was founded in March 1997 with a view to giving Kenyans abroad a platform in which they can exchange views and help bring change back home."  Has their Press Statements, etc. http://www.kenyansabroad.org

Kenyan Community Abroad Bomb Victim Fund
"Kenyan Community Abroad (KCA) Announces the immediate commencement of “Bomb Victim Fund” with the following objective:  to help pay for medical supplies and equipment needed for the case and rehabilitation of those injured in the bombings; to help pay for specialized expertise and medical needs for the treatment and rehabilitation of those injured in this horrendous inhuman act..."

The Kenya Community Abroad, P. O. Box 996
Rochester, MN 55903-0996, USA
E-mail: kca@mayo.edu  Phone: (301) 301 622-0423   Fax: (301) 622-0423

Kenyan Internet Exchange
"KIXP allows Kenyan Internet Service Providers to easily exchange traffic within Kenya, while improving connectivity and services for their customers. KIXP is run and operated by the Telecommunication Service Providers of Kenya (TESPOK)." Has the full text of the Kenya Communications Act, 1998.

Kenyan Lyrics
Most popular songs section. Musician biographies. Blog about Kenyan music. Section on hymns. http://www.kenyanlyrics.com/kenyan-music-blog/

Kenyan Netwatch (Nairobi)
Online edition of the print magazine. Published by Raytom Information Services, Nairobi. News on the internet in Kenya, feature articles such as "How the web has changed Kenya," directory of Kenyan internet service providers, articles on useful Kenyan web sites, links to Kenyan sites. http://www.netwatch.co.ke/

Kenyan Pundit
Blog about Kenya issues, events and elsewhere. http://www.kenyanpundit.com/

Kenyan Resources Database
"A project aimed at making available bibliographic information of theses and dissertations that have significant research carried out on or in Kenya." Locate theses by author, title, institution, year, and blocks of years. Those with theses or dissertations not in the database are welcome to include it. The Project Manager is S. Katuu of Vancouver, Canada. E-mail: kenyadb@yahoo.com

Kenyatta University (Nairobi)
Faculty, history of the university, etc. http://www.ku.ac.ke/

Kiano, Julius - "Kenyan Independence, the Early Years"
1989 interview with Kiano, Chairman of the Kenya Broadcasting Corporation. He was at U.C. Berkeley to receive the Haas International Award, which is given to a distinguished foreign alumnus. Kiano discusses the 1960s airlifts of Kenya students to the U.S., the independence struggle, Thurgood Marshall, gaining economic power, formation of the African-Caribbean-Pacific (APC) of the European Community. Part of the Conversations with History series from the Institute of International Studies, Univ. of California, Berkeley. http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/conversations/Kiano/

KickStart (formerly ApproTEC)
An NGO founded in Kenya in 1991, works in Kenya, Tanzania, Mali. "Each summer, ApproTEC has a very limited number of internships at its offices in Nairobi, Kenya. These non-paying positions are for experienced business, economics, and engineering design graduate students or professionals. ApproTEC assists small business people "to identify viable business opportunities, to access the technologies required to launch the new enterprises and to widely market new products." Example: Designed a water pump which has helped Kenyans grow food more efficiently and profitably. ApproTEC received one of five Tech Museum of Innovation award for technology benefiting humanity - Source: San Jose Mercury News, 1C. Nov. 8, 2002, p. Based in Nairobi and San Francisco. http://www.approtec.org/

KIMbia Athletics
"KIMbia is the Swahili word meaning "to run". The selection of this name is both an acknowledgement of the impact Kenyan runners have had on international athletics, as well as serving to continue the legacy of the late Kim McDonald, who was one of the world’s finest athlete managers until his untimely death in 2001." Includes Athlete profiles. http://www.kimbia.net/

Kneen-McDaid, Jan - "HIV in Africa"
Article on the author's visit  with the Maasai. Explains why a small donation to support a school in Kenya will help in the local fight against AIDS. http://www.geocities.com/WestHollywood/Heights/5227/maasai-HIV.htm

Kusoma International [formerly the Laurenti Mohochi Educational Foundation]
"...a nonprofit organization created to enable access to quality education for children of impoverished and marginalized communities (particularly in the Kuria District of Kenya)." Scholarships for high school students and community service opportunities for Kenyan students. Works with the Stanford student group, REACH. Has a survey of education in Kuria West District. http://lmefoundation.com/

Kwani? (Nakuru, Kenya)
Online literary magazine from Kenya. New writers, literary criticism, news on Kenya cultural events. The first issue appeared Sept. 2002; a print edition will be published Sept. 2003. Has the full text of, The Weight of Whispers, by Yvonne Adhiambo Owuor, winner of the 2003 Caine Prize. Founded by Kenyan writers including Binyavanga Wainaina (2002 winner of the Caine Prize). Based in Nakuru, Kenya. http://www.kwani.org/

Kwetu is an online library of documents and photographs from Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia. Access is by fee; a free demo is available. Topics include health, AIDS, religion, conservation, appropriate technology, economy, children, women, family planning, legal issues, population, conflict resolution, governance, etc. Founded in 2000 by Karani Nyamu and Sarge Odhiambo, based in Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.kwetu.net/

Kyoto University. Center for African Area Studies (CAAS). AFlora on the Web
"...database of traditional plant utilization in Africa. Created by AFlora Committee, since 1998." Information on use of the plants for food and medicine, for ritual and other spiritual purposes and use in the oral tradition of songs and proverbs. Data comes from Kenya, Congo, Botswana...more than 10,000 records of useful plants in Africa are stored in terms of usage, vernacular name, ritual meanings, etc. There is also a collection of African insects and plant specimens available to researchers."


Peasant communities are often characterized by recurring poverty, debilitating powerlessness, precarious productive systems, constant subjection to impositions and exactions from external forces, and persistent threat of extinction. [1] In response, they engage in various actions geared towards mitigating the impact of the above conditions or, at the extreme, radically transforming their lives.
On one hand, peasants have been described as passive and willing to endure and adapt to the most unequal of relations with outsiders. When their backs are against the wall, they either cut down on their consumption or intensify their farm work. In many cases, they simply leave the countryside and take on work in the urban areas or in other countries. In many cases, as a popular branch of peasant studies illustrates, they engage in “everyday forms of resistance” by employing what has been termed “weapons of the weak” (Scott 1985, Scott and Kerkvliet 1986). [2]

At the other end of the spectrum of peasant responses to external impositions and oppression are major acts of resistance such as rebellions and revolutions requiring collective action on the part of peasant communities. There are various theories on peasant participation either as main protagonists or adjunct players in revolutionary movements. One stems from placing “the subsistence ethic at the center of the analysis of peasant politics” and where recurring violations of a “moral economy” based on a “notion of economic justice and (a) working definition of exploitation” are thought to trigger spontaneous outbursts of uprisings and insurrections (Scott 1976).

Skocpol (1994) compares the arguments in the works of Wolf, Migdal, Paige, Scott, and Moore. [3] She raises three questions concerning the issue of what makes peasants revolutionary and examines each author’s responses. On the question of “which peasants are most prone to revolution,” Wolf and Scott declare that landholding peasants fit this category while Paige points to propertyless shareholders and landless farmworkers. On the role of political and military organizations, Moore, Scott and Paige view them as external to the peasantry’s autonomous mobilizations while Migdal asserts that peasantries have been largely propelled by revolutionary parties. Finally, as to whether capitalist imperialist development leads to peasant revolution, Wolf, Migdal, Paige and Moore agree that this has indeed been the case with the roots to be found in the modernization, commercialization and industrialization of agriculture set in motion by globalizing forces.

This paper is concerned primarily with the tradition that is rooted in various Marxist analyses of peasant participation in revolutionary agrarian social movements. It starts by looking at the questions that have informed Marxist studies on peasant revolutions and how writers from this school of inquiry have attempted to answer them. To show how Marxists have in practice related to peasant societies, the paper then looks at an actual peasant community consisting of three villages in the provinces of Tarlac and Pampanga in Central Luzon, Philippines which have been the targets of organizing activities by armed Marxist guerrilla movements. As a way of further localizing and focusing encounters between Marxists and peasants, the third part presents a brief life story of an individual peasant from one of these communities who directly participated in the agrarian armed struggle. The fourth part brings the three previous sections together to see how Marxist theories on peasant revolutionary activities compare with actual experiences on the ground.

A principal argument of this study is that Marxist theories on peasant revolutions seem far removed from reality and that practitioners often find themselves pragmatically adjusting and revising the former to conform to the situation in the field. On the part of peasant societies and their members, on the other hand, the findings from the field show that different motivations (including personal considerations) in joining the armed struggle are at work and that participation in revolutionary struggles is only one of the options that individual peasants consider in responding to their abject conditions and improving their lives.

While the experiences of three peasant communities may not provide sufficient information to generalize on how Filipino Marxists related to the peasantry, these case studies nevertheless provide glimpses of reality that could very well have been replicated in other parts of the country. Indeed, scholarly studies at the macro level on Communist-led agrarian rebellions in the Philippines appear to validate (to a significant extent) the findings from the field.

 Peasants and Revolutionary Movements

From a Marxist point of view, class analysis forms an important component of the notion of peasant revolutions. A primary question deals with the attitude of the peasant class towards revolutionary change. Corollary to this is the question of when and how peasants actually engage in revolutionary activities. A secondary issue is how peasants relate to what Marxists assume is the only innately revolutionary vanguard class – the urban proletariat, which in practice is invariably represented by a communist or socialist party or similar-type organizations.

Marx (1969:478-480) has two notions on these problems. First, he distinguishes between the revolutionary peasant and the non-revolutionary peasant. Briefly, the peasant who remains isolated from other peasants and forms no collective spirit either within or with other marginalized classes of society is a non-revolutionary peasant. This is the peasant who will cling at all costs to his smallholding even when it is no longer a viable undertaking and will resist socialist-oriented changes, e.g., collectivization. Worse, this peasant will often ally with reactionary forces against the revolutionary proletariat. On the other hand, the peasantry who attains a consciousness towards collective action, correctly identifies their class enemies, and unites with other oppressed classes is a revolutionary peasant.
Marx went on to declare that the non-revolutionary peasantry “consequently (are) incapable of enforcing their class interests in their own name,” … and being unable to represent themselves “must be represented. And that this “representative must at the same time appear as their master, an authority over them, as an unlimited governmental power that protects them against the other classes and sends them rain and sunshine from above.” In such a situation, the peasantry becomes hostage to another political regime that would in Marx’s colorful language

“… represent not the revolutionary, but the conservative peasant; not the peasant that strikes out beyond the condition of his social existence, the small holding, but rather the peasant who wants to consolidate this holding; not the country folk who … want to overthrow the old order…, but on the contrary those who, in stupefied seclusion within this old order, want to see themselves and their small holdings saved and favored.... It represents not the enlightenment, but the superstition of the peasant; not his judgment, but his prejudice; not his future, but his past …”

The conservative position of the peasantry towards revolutionary change is rooted in the family-based village economy, a “natural economy most unalloyed” which “produced everything it needed” and where “almost no money was necessary” (Engels 1970:460). “Each individual peasant family is (therefore) almost self-sufficient … produces … its consumption … and thus acquires its means of life through exchange with nature rather than in intercourse with society” (Marx 1969:478). Moreover, “their mode of production isolates them from one another instead of bringing them into mutual intercourse” while their “field of production, the small holding, admits of no division of labor in its cultivation, no application of science, and therefore no diversity of development, no variety of talent, no wealth of social relationships” (Marx 1969:478).

Capitalism, with “its money economy and large-scale industry,” puts an end to the natural economy and thereby dooms the peasant mode of smallholder production (Engels 1970:460). But rather than going over to the side of the proletariat, the peasantry stubbornly clings to the land and is distrustful of socialist calls for nationalization of the land, which appear to them as nothing more than outright expropriation of their small farms. As such they are often susceptible to the designs of the bourgeoisie with its call for protection and preservation of private property.

What then should be the attitude of the revolutionary forces to the peasantry? On the eve of the October Bolshevik revolution, Lenin (1977a:217) wrote: “…the attitude of the proletariat to the peasants … confirms the old Bolshevik concept, correspondingly modifying it, that the peasants must be wrested from the influence of the bourgeoisie. That is the sole guarantee of salvation of the revolution.”

Marxist theory asserts that in both backward agrarian societies and capitalist societies with large peasant populations, an alliance between the working class and the peasantry is a necessary strategy. But this will not be an alliance between equals. The peasantry is to be under the leadership of the proletariat class which, in the struggle against capitalism, is alone a really revolutionary class (Marx and Engels 1973:77). Once the peasantry realizes that their smallholding has been “enslaved by capital” and is the principal cause of their ruin, they will gravitate to their “natural ally and leader,” the urban proletariat (Marx 1969:480-482).

Lenin (1977b:269) echoed the above views as he pointed out that in “every capitalist country where there are peasants” the overthrow of an oppressive government “can only be accomplished by the proletariat.” The peasantry, being an isolated and amorphous mass of independent producers, “much as potatoes in a sack forms a sack of potatoes” (Marx 1969:479), is to be organized by an outside force, the party of the proletariat.

Notwithstanding these iterations of the politically conservative nature of the peasant class, the practice of revolutionary Marxist movements showed considerable flexibility and adjustments. Before the outbreak of the October insurrection in the cities, a peasant revolt broke out spontaneously in the Russian countryside and Lenin immediately called on his Bolshevik party to support the peasants’ struggle. When the 1917 insurrection brought the Bolsheviks into power, Lenin declared a “Workers’ and Peasants’ Government of the Russian Republic”, cancelled all landlords’ titles and ordered the transfer of the land to the peasant committees without compensation (Reed 1966:264, 350). [4]

In China, whose ancient and modern history has been replete with large-scale peasant revolts, widespread agrarian unrest and peasant movements were enveloping the countryside in the 1920s led by the Peasant Associations (Chesneaux 1973:82-100). The Chinese Communist Party, under cover of its tenuous alliance with the Kuomintang Party, provided political leadership as well as an agrarian program to these associations who had become the de facto local governing bodies in the rural areas. In 1927, Mao Tsetung (1971a:35) wrote about such associations and the role of the poor peasants in the province of Hunan.

“This great mass of poor peasants, … are the backbone of the peasant associations, the vanguard in the overthrow of the feudal forces … Without the poor peasant class …, it would have been impossible to bring about the present revolutionary situation in the countryside, or to overthrow the local tyrants and evil gentry and complete the democratic revolution. The poor peasants, being the most revolutionary group, have gained the leadership of the peasant associations.”

Mao waxed effusive by declaring that “leadership by the poor peasants is absolutely necessary” and that “without the poor peasants there would be no revolution.”

“To deny their role is to deny the revolution. To attack them is to attack the revolution. They have never been wrong on the general direction of the revolution” (Mao 1971a:36).

Despite Mao’s profuse celebration of the peasantry, the ongoing Kuomintang-Communist alliance served to moderate the demands of the peasant associations. The two parties’ agrarian program to which the associations adhered was limited to the reduction of land rents and usurious interest rates and provision of basic political liberties (Chesneaux 1973:89-100). [5] More radical measures such as land seizures and establishment of peasant cooperatives were discouraged and even criticized as “excesses.” When the Kuomintang broke with the Communists in late 1927 and killed thousands of their former allies (thus decimating the Communist ranks), the landed gentry resurrected their armed militias which then conducted massacres of leaders and members of the peasant associations. Consequently, the peasant movement went into a hiatus.

In accordance with the prevailing balance of class forces in China and breaking with Marxist (and Soviet) orthodoxy on the subject, Mao would henceforth elevate the role of the peasantry in the Chinese revolution. Writing in 1939, he called the armed struggle in China as essentially a “peasant war” saying that the Communist Party’s “relations with the peasantry and its close relations with the peasant war are one and the same thing” (Mao 1971b:166). [6] In place of the traditional Marxist stance that the peasantry is a vacillating partner of the workers’ movement, Mao posited the view that “the peasantry is the firm ally of the proletariat.”

At the launching of the “Cultural Revolution” in the late sixties, Mao would reiterate his idealization of the peasantry by emphasizing “learning from the peasants, rather than from the workers” (Schram 1974:29). [7] By doing so he practically debunked the thesis that the proletariat was the only truly revolutionary class.

It can fairly be argued that Mao has never completely accepted the Marxist postulate of a sharp qualitative difference between the political attitudes and capacities of the urban workers on the one hand, and the peasants, sunk in “rural idiocy”, on the other. Indeed he went so far in 1926 to state that the peasants were more uncompromisingly revolutionary than the workers (Schram 1974:29-30).

After China, two other major peasant-based revolutionary movements that ended in victory were the Cuban revolution (1956-1958) and the Vietnamese revolution which spanned four decades from the 1930s to 1975. As is well known, the peasant masses (the campesinos in Cuba and the landless and tenant farmers in Vietnam) provided the main support for these two movements and the agrarian question and its resolution were primary mobilizing elements as well as major government programs in the reconstruction and post-revolutionary period. [8] Commenting on the role of the peasantry in the making of the modern world, Moore (1966:453) concludes that

"No longer is it possible to take seriously the view that the peasant is an ‘object of history,’ a form of social life over which historical changes pass but which contributes nothing to the impetus to these changes. For those who savor historical irony it is indeed curious that the peasant in the modern era has been as much an agent of revolution as the machine, that he has come into his own as an effective historical actor along with the conquests of the machine.”

Moore also notes that “the wellsprings of freedom” need not lie exclusively in social forces and classes “about to take power,” as Marxist theory would put it, “but perhaps even more in the dying wail of a class over whom the wave of progress is about to roll” (p. 504). Writing in 1966, he however (like many scholars on peasant studies) prematurely sounds the death knell for the peasantry in the context of the global spread of industrial society which he sees as rendering anachronistic revolutionary radicalism.

While the actual role that peasants have played in contemporary revolutionary movements have far exceeded the limitations placed on it by classical Marxist analysis, the latter’s view that the peasantry by themselves would be unable to overthrow the existing order has also seen its validation in the above instances. In the case of China, Chesneaux (1973:151-152) observed that the “external stimulation” that “set the peasantry in motion” was through the media of “ideas, men, and organizational forms” that came from the cities and industrialized towns. The same could be said of the Cuban and Vietnamese experiences whose principal leaders grew up in urban areas and were of middle class origin with some even arising from the upper class. In other words, the peasant movements were, for all intents and purposes, basically led by non-peasants.

 Marxism and the Peasantry in the Philippines

To situate the above issues and concerns in the context of the Philippine situation, this study has chosen to focus on the direct experiences of three rural villages in the Central Luzon as case studies, the region being regarded as the traditional hotbed of peasant unrest. In doing so, the author deviates from the usual practice of radical scholars that looks at the peasant question from a larger national and aggregate perspective. While useful and necessary in providing a wider view of an important social phenomenon, national studies often marginalize the principal players in the struggle – the peasant masses themselves, how they have been affected by revolutionary activities and how they themselves relate to radical groups attempting to change their lives.

In addition, this paper also adopts the tradition of social historians who look at the experiences in struggle of the common people and argue that their history is not the same as, and cannot be replaced by, the history of social movements and mass organizations whether these be peasant- or worker-based. This is an all too often mistaken assumption that Marxist historians make (Hobsbawm 1997:203-204).

The Study Area

The villages (barangays) of San Vicente and Santo Niño in Bamban, Tarlac and Calumpang in Mabalacat, Pampanga comprise 5,612 hectares of rolling hills and mountains in the Central Luzon region in the Philippines. They were part of 41,000 hectares of American military baselands which reverted to the Philippine government in 1979. Prior to the Mount Pinatubo eruptions in 1991-1992, the communities could be reached through a 5-kilometer-long uphill and winding road at the western end of the 300-meter-long Bamban Bridge across the Sacobia-Bamban River which marks the boundary between the provinces of Pampanga and Tarlac. [9]

The 4,795-foot Mount Pinatubo defined the area’s southwestern boundaries. To the southeast and across the Sacobia River [10] had sprawled the famous American military complex, Clark Air Base, home of the U.S. 13th Air Force (until it was forced to close down in 1992). A strategic characteristic of the study area’s location was that it straddled the boundaries of three provinces - Pampanga, Tarlac, and Zambales. Mount Pinatubo and the Cabusilan mountain range loomed over the triangle formed by the confluence of these three boundary lines.

To the northwest was the controversial Crow Valley, the 17,854-hectare bombing and air firing practice range of the 13th U.S. Air Force. Further north was the site of the sophisticated transmitter facilities of Clark as well as its Camp O’Donnell which was turned over to the Philippine government only in 1991. Government surveys in the seventies’ had described the area as “generally characterized by rugged terrain, high elevation, and steep slopes (with) elevations ranging from 100 meters above sea level to 670 meters above sea level in its western portion.”
The three villages are relatively newly-established peasant communities. Farmer-settler families from lowland areas moved here during the late 1940s and early 1950s due to the deteriorating economic and political conditions brought about by the destruction wrought by the war years, the return of landlordism, and the outbreak of a major armed peasant rebellion. The communities’ population ranged from a low of 1,760 persons in the seventies to a high of 2,700 in the late nineties.

The area however was under the jurisdiction of the American-run Clark Air Base and the land itself was classified as a military reservation and thus was inalienable and indisposable. Thus, the settlers were disqualified from owning the lands they tilled or the houses they built. Informal land and housing market mechanisms were resorted to in order to get around these legal impediments. Technically however, the farmer-settlers were squatters and the situation has remained unchanged till today.

The scarce cultivable land area limited farm sizes and created a relatively egalitarian distribution of land while precluding the growth of a full-blown landlord class. [11] The three villages’ relatively inaccessible location and the vulnerability of the established farm households to government expropriation at any time created feelings of solidarity and collectivity among the residents that were probably greater than what can be found in other peasant communities in the lowland areas. The small farm-households were also relatively self-sufficient and to a large extent production was subsistence-oriented.

In short, it was a community which hewed closely to the essential features of a typical peasant society in the Chayanovian [12] tradition (Bernstein and Byres 2001) comprising of (a) “household farming organized for simple reproduction (‘subsistence’); (b) the solidarities, reciprocities and egalitarianism of (village) community; and, (c) commitment to the values of a way of life based on household and community, kin, and locale (and harmony with nature…).” As the communities grew over the years, they shed some of their isolation and, as anticipated by Shanin (1987a), also engaged in the “daily exchange of goods and in labor markets.”

Impositions and harassments, and later, expropriations of the surplus came from forces outside the villages: (a) the American-controlled Clark Air Base, (b) sugar capitalists who intruded into the area in the sixties’, (c) a major state-initiated and high profile rural development project from 1979 to 1991, (d) a government rehabilitation and relocation program in the wake of the 1991-1992 Mount Pinatubo eruptions, and (e) a special economic zone established in the mid-1990s. In addition two generations of left-wing guerrillas tried to exert a political influence on the villages with interestingly mixed results, as the discussion that follows shows.

Dealing with Huk insurgents

Conditions of the peasantry during the late forties and early fifties were becoming more oppressive. The end of the Second World War and lberation from Japanese rule did not translate into emancipation from the yoke of landlordism (Constantino 1975, Kerkvliet 1979). Coming in the wake of the devastation caused by the war, peasants felt unduly burdened by the reimposed sharing arrangements where one-half of expenses were borne by the tenant who in turn kept only half of the harvest. Political repression (including killings) aimed at members of peasant organizations and their leaders was also rampant.

Agrarian unrest soon escalated in the countryside with a full-scale peasant rebellion centered in the Central Luzon provinces. To a significant extent, it was led and guided by the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (PKP, Communist Party of the Philippines) and its armed wing, the Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan (HMB, People’s Liberation Army), or “Huks” for short. [13] Other peasant mass organizations also rose to confront the big landowners, the Philippine government and their military allies. [14] The armed rebellion erupted in 1946 and was at its peak between 1949 and 1951 when rebel guerrillas reached 22,000 men. [15]

In the plains and hills of Tarlac and Pampanga provinces, the armed insurgency found fertile ground and this included the three villages in this study. The HMB actively operated in this upland area. In an interview, former PKP-HMB leader Bartolome Pasion, who hails from Mabalacat, claimed that almost all the villages of Bamban and Mabalacat towns were organized by or came under the influence of the party.

Bart Pasion, who became a PKP Central Committee member, had his baptism of fire in the forests of the Sapang Cauayan area (in what became San Vicente) in late 1949. He was a young political officer of an HMB unit that was scouting the area when they were surprised by a Philippine Constabulary group that happened to be doing the same thing in the same place. They were immediately fired upon and unable to retaliate, scattered in all directions and left everything - their guns, ammunition, and documents. Luckily, no one was killed. Bart says it was the scariest moment of his life.

The attitude among the residents was “live and let live” with the rebels. San Vicente resident Zacarias “Apo Carias” Catli says that the HMB used to come and appropriate part of his crop harvest. He remembers offering them newly harvested eggplants and soon regretting it when they started picking out the best ones (“pinipili pa iyong magaganda”).

Some settlers had relatives who were active in the HMB and PKP. Lucio Pasion, who settled in the area in 1951, is the younger brother of Bart Pasion and other brothers were also with the guerrillas. In the sixties’ Apo Lucio would himself join MASAKA (Malayang Samahang Magsasaka), the PKP’s legal peasant organization. San Vicente founder Vicente “Apo Bising” Narciso had nephews who were HMB commanders and instructors. Despite this, being the settlers’ acknowledged leader, he was often under pressure by the guerrillas who once captured and threatened to shoot him. His negotiating skills saved his life. Later, a right wing death squad nicknamed the “Monkees” also sent him threatening notes, this time because of his family ties with the HMB.

Calumpang barrio captain Emiliano Mendoza talked of an important conference held in his village between the two rival HMB groups of Kumander Alibasbas and Kumander Sumulong. Bernabe “Kumander Dante” Buscayno (later to found the New People’s Army, NPA) was then identified with the Alibasbas group and he operated in the Bamban-Capas area. Lucio Pasion recalled that as late as 1964, there was an armed encounter between the Philippine Constabulary (PC) and the HMB in Sitio Balacbac.

According to Bart Pasion, whose area of command included the three villages in this study, the PKP’s bloody conflict with the renegade Sumulong group in the early sixties distracted their cadres from more intensive organizing work. [16] Thus the HMB never really made substantial and long lasting inroads in the place.

Of course by the time more permanent settlements in the three barrios had been established in the area in the mid-fifties, the HMB-PKP insurgency had already declined considerably (Kerkvliet 1979, Lava 2003). From 1952 to 1956, the armed rebellion had practically petered out and PKP-HMB cadres had to struggle simply to survive and avoid getting caught by government troops. Bart Pasion was captured in 1956 and released a year later. He said he tried to resume organizing activities in Sitio Balacbac and in what is now the Sto. Niño area in Bamban all the way to Capas, Tarlac but his progress was slow and hampered by the fact that he was already identified as a Huk leader and therefore closely monitored by the police. He was initially able to bring an armed group into Balacbac but its presence was shortlived.

From HMB to NPA

After 1956, the PKP-HMB rapidly declined as an effective revolutionary group, its ranks decimated by an intensive and brutal government counter-insurgency campaign heavily funded by the U.S. government which saw the capture of its Communist leaders and surrender or death in combat of many rank and file and general demoralization of its once formidable peasant mass base (Kerkvliet 1979, Lava 2002). [17] Many also died of illness or hunger and some top cadres were the victims of betrayal and treachery.

To make matters worse, in the sixties, the remaining HMB armed group split into two factions – the Alibasbas group headed by Cesario “Kumander Alibasbas” Manarang and the Sumulong group headed by Faustino “Kumander Sumulong” del Mundo. The former maintained a principled political struggle while the latter soon degenerated into a criminal underworld syndicate operating in Angeles City (Dizon 2003). [18]

Within the PKP, a major split occurred in 1966-1967 which saw the establishment in December 1967 of a rival party calling itself the Communist Party of the Philippines Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought (CPP-ML-MTT) under the leadership of former University of the Philippines English instructor Jose Ma. Sison (Weekley 2001: 20-41, Abinales 2001:117-125)). Dante Buscayno, who joined Sumulong’s group following Kumander Alibasbas’ death in 1966, broke away soon after and formed his own armed band which, upon linking up with Sison’s fledgeling CPP, became the New People’s Army (NPA), the new party’s military wing. [19]

During the late sixties and early seventies, the Bamban-Mabalacat-Angeles area was the scene of intense and sometimes bloody confrontations between four armed groups - (1) the government troops (Philippine Constabulary, the Army, and Civilian Home Defense Force) and a notorious right wing paramilitary death squad nicknamed the “Monkees”; (2) the Sumulong Group which had degenerated into an underworld criminal syndicate nicknamed the “Beatles”; (3) the Maoist CPP-NPA under Kumander Dante; and (4) the remnants of the old PKP-HMB group under Mariano “Kumander Diwa” de Guzman. [20]

These rivalries were characterized by constant surveillance, street gun battles, assassinations, harassments, beatings, and kidnappings. Apo Lucio Pasion’s PKP-HMB brothers had been identified with the Alibasbas group and later with Kumander Diwa and were thus on the hit list of Sumulong’s “Beatles” group. Apo Lucio would sometimes be captured and beaten up by Sumulong henchmen who were looking for his brothers. He recounted that he was once locked up in a closet in order to lure his brothers into a trap.

The people feared the “Beatles” and “Monkees” death squads the most for they did not appear to be accountable to anyone for their actions. Many town residents wishing to escape the conflicts and avoid being caught in the crossfire moved to the interior barrios of San Vicente, Calumpang, and Sto. Niño. But as the conflicts spread, even these barangays were not spared.

Within this socially volatile situation, unrest in the three villages of this study entered a period of resurgence with the NPA gaining adherents among the peasant-producers. The NPA had by this time gained the upper hand over its rival groups in the area and in the eyes of the Tarlac and Pampanga peasantry, would subsequently take the place of the HMB as the primary radical armed group operating in Central Luzon.

The NPA saw the relatively inaccessible barrios of San Vicente, Calumpang, and Sto. Niño as natural sanctuaries. [21] The absence of large and wealthy landowners who would feel threatened by their presence also facilitated their entry into the area. [22] Still another reason for the NPA’s interest in the place was that, in case of military pursuits, it provided them a westward escape route across the mountains towards less-turbulent towns and villages in Zambales province.

According to Apo Lucio Pasion, Dante Buscayno’s group first entered the villages in 1968. Both Apo Bising Narciso and his wife, Marcelina “Apo Celing” Soriano Narciso vividly recall Dante’s frequent visits to their farm beside Sapang Cauayan in Sitio Balacbac, San Vicente. The NPA leader would arrive with a group of men and women as often as two or three times a month. Sometimes, they would stop for a whole week. Apo Celing was pleased to note that they would help around the house, scrub the floor, cook meals, and work in the fields. They were also so self-assured that they sometimes engaged in target shooting practice. They never asked for anything and took only what was offered to them explaining that “we are forbidden to ask for anything” (“bawal po sa amin ang mang-hingi”). Nevertheless whatever they took, they paid for. One time fifty (50) guerrillas showed up and stayed for a few hours. The couple had to slaughter several chickens to feed the famished rebels.

Apo Celing recalls that Dante looked so small and so thin that she was astonished to learn that this was the legendary NPA chief. His men however were tall and fair-skinned (“matatangkad at mapuputi”) and the women, “pretty” (“magaganda”). She would also see him being carried on the shoulders of his men when crossing Sapang Cauayan. For his part, Apo Bising remembers the guerrilla leader as a “kind person” (“mabait na bata”).

During one of Dante’s visits, Apo Celing learned that her sister had met a vehicular accident and was in an Angeles City hospital. As the couple prepared to leave for the city, Dante offered some money to help defray the medical expenses. Apo Celing refused to take the proffered amount however, saying she had enough for her needs. When they came back a week later, the NPAs were still around but the house was clean and well-kept.

Ruben Sison, an Ayta resident of Calumpang says the NPAs dressed better than the government soldiers (“daig pa ang mga sundalo kung magbihis”). Rodolfo David, a Sto. Niño resident who first came to the area in 1954, said that the NPA practically functioned as the local government cum police (“Ang NPA ang military namin dito”). The residents seemed to appreciate the way the rebels managed affairs. What impressed Rodolfo the most was that when the NPAs were in control, the farmers could leave their houses for days, even weeks, and nothing would be missing when they returned. The farm tools and sacks of stored palay (unhusked rice) would be intact and not a single chicken, egg, pig, goat or work animal would be lost. He contrasted this with the past and after the NPAs left when you could not leave your house for even a single night without finding your chickens gone.

The rebels were young, of college-student age and Rodolfo describes them as “good, like lawyers” (“mga estudyante, magagaling, parang mga abogado”). They organized regular three-day live-in seminars in Angeles City where San Vicente residents would attend. As many as 200 persons from different barangays and towns would be in the closed-door sessions listening to lecturers on topics that “would drive you crazy” (“masisira ang ulo mo”) such as an intensive course on Philippine history.

Romance also bloomed in the midst of the unrest. I met two San Vicente women residents who had fallen in love with and married NPA guerrillas. One of them described her husband as a former student from the University of the Philippines (UP). [23] They had three children.

Dante explained to the farmers that the NPA was a movement for equality and aimed at ending all oppression (“magkakapantay-pantay, walang mang-aapi at walang inaapi”). He also described a society where there would be no rich and no poor (“walang mahirap, walang mayaman”). A strong sense of voluntarism was imparted among the people as represented by slogans like “Strengthen Our Resolve” and “Dare to Struggle, Dare to Win”. On the more practical side, the NPAs also campaigned for rent reduction - from 70-30 in favor of the landowner to 60-40 in the tenant’s favor.

The NPA was able to recruit members from among the peasant-settlers. One of Apo Celing Narciso’s sons became a high-ranking NPA commander. Apo Sinang Gomez Catli’s only brother, Zoilo “Ilong” Gomez, was also an NPA commander and the object of a manhunt by PC troops. She herself was often asked to hand carry underground messages for her brother to and from his comrades. Members of an indigenous ethnic community, the Aytas, also joined the rebel army and took such “noms de guerre” as “Kumander Tricycle” and “Che Guevara”. [24]

Armed Encounters in San Vicente

Roberto Gonzales, former San Vicente barangay captain, says that there was an encounter in 1977 between the military and the NPA where a certain Kumander Roger Buscayno was killed along with two others. Other residents volunteered this same information but could not agree on whether Roger was Dante’s brother, nephew, or just another NPA leader.

The story I was able to piece together was that what took place was more of an ambush rather than an encounter. It appears that Roger and his group were having breakfast and mending their clothes when they were surprised by a PC unit that immediately fired on them. Roger and one other guerrilla were killed on the spot. The others managed to escape.

An immediate reaction of the PC to this incident was to call the barangay officials to an “emergency meeting.” [25] However, only Apo Sinang Catli and Roberto Gonzales showed up. The others (including the barangay captain) were too scared to appear. A PC lieutenant demanded to know why the other officials were not present and was simply told that they were not available. The angry PC officer questioned why the barangay officials never reported the presence of the NPA guerrillas in their barrio even if they knew who they were. Apo Sinang replied that if they did that, they would surely be killed. She later realized that the PC had an informer in the village since the soldiers obviously knew what was going on when their backs were turned.

Another incident took place in 1979 and this was recounted by a member of the PC military unit that took part in it. Edgar Frente, [26] was part of a PC battalion assigned to the three villages. His superiors told them that it was a “critical area” thus their presence was required. Their orders were that if they see anyone carrying unauthorized firearms, looked different or acted suspiciously (“kakaibang itsura at kilos”), they were to fire on them (“babanatan daw namin”).

The battalion had received information about an armed group that was spotted in Sitio Batson between San Vicente and Sto. Niño (“padaan-daan daw diyan”). Edgar was part of a 12-man unit headed by a Sergeant that was sent to the area. On a quiet evening with a bright moon, they situated themselves behind the bushes by the river bank and prepared a “stay-in-ambush.” At about 11 p.m., they spotted six armed guerrillas crossing the shallow river only a few meters from where the soldiers lay in wait. The soldiers immediately opened fire causing the guerrillas to split into two - four had moved further from them while the other two unknowingly moved closer. Gunfire was concentrated on these two closest who had no chance to retaliate and were immediately killed. The four on the other side returned sporadic fire and were able to escape. The PC unit suffered no casualties.

Edgar says they never bothered to find out the identities of the slain NPAs, only that the guerrilla group was composed of outsiders (“mga taga labas”) and that at least two were Aytas (“mga kulot”). After the successful mission, the Sergeant was given a promotion but everyone else, including Edgar, got nothing.

Not all encounters had the guerrillas at the receiving end. Ruben Sison recounted a spectacular NPA operation where twenty (20) guerrillas disguised in government military uniforms showed up in Calumpang and disarmed the local paramilitary unit (CHDF) of its armory of 22 rifles. The residents later learned that this was part of simultaneous disarming operations in five (5) other Mabalacat barangays.

Walking the Tightrope

Despite the generally positive attitude the settlers had of the NPA, they were often caught between the two contending forces in the struggle and frequently had to walk a tightrope. Apo Celing Narciso narrated an incident when an NPA unit happened to be resting inside the family’s farmhouse. Suddenly, a neighbor came to warn that a PC unit was heading their way after raiding a nearby village. The NPAs hurriedly left by wading through the shallow river. To cover their tracks, and showing remarkable presence of mind, she took the carabao (water buffalo) to wallow in the river.

When the government troops arrived, they started interrogating Apo Celing who stubbornly denied that the NPAs had just been there. When the soldiers inquired about the muddied waters, she answered that it was because she had just bathed the carabao. Determined not to lose her composure, she argued with the PC saying that she feeds everyone, so long as they were people (“basta tao”).

The soldiers were initially suspicious and, talking among themselves in Ilocano, called her “untrustworthy and a liar”. But Apo Celing, who originally hails from Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija, understood them and adamantly defended herself in the same language. Realizing that she was after all a fellow Ilocano (“kababayan”) and obviously intimidated by her aggressiveness, the soldiers apologized and left.

Emiliano Mendoza recounted an incident in either 1973 or 1974 when four NPA guerrillas spent the night in his Calumpang farmhouse. In the morning, while the rebel soldiers were still resting, a platoon of Philippine Army soldiers suddenly appeared and surrounded his house. The platoon lieutenant told the farmer that an NPA group had been sighted in the vicinity. Mendoza admitted seeing the rebels pass through but that they had already gone. To show he was sincere, he invited them inside for coffee. Fortunately for him, the soldiers declined and soon left. Back inside the house, the relieved NPAs told him: “For a moment, we thought your balls had risen to your throat” ("Akala namin, umakyat na ang bayag mo sa lalamunan).

Once when Apo Sinang’s NPA brother was visiting, Philippine Constabulary (PC) troops swooped down on Sitio Balacbac accompanied by two helicopters. The soldiers, some of whom were known to Sinang, told her that they received information that her brother, Kumander Gomez, was in the village. She of course denied this but challenged them to look for him in their house. Since she showed no fear or hesitation, the PC believed her and did not proceed upstairs. In fact her brother was really hiding in a closet upstairs. Upon leaving, the soldiers offered her a 45 caliber pistol which she refused, saying that having a gun would just provoke others and that this would only shorten her life.

When Apo Bising Narciso was barrio captain, the PC offered him 10 rifles to fight the NPA. He asked for 30 rifles instead and reasoned that the barrio folk needed more guns to resist their oppressors, whether they are PC or the “hukbo”. Word however got around that Apong Bising was preparing to fight the NPA. A guerrilla unit confronted him but the old man explained his side and pointed out that he had always helped the guerrillas with food, shelter, and other things. Convinced of his sincerity, the NPA let him go free. But the harassments did not stop. After receiving a handwritten note from the dreaded “Monkees” death squad accusing him of pretending to discipline the barrio people while secretly aiding the NPA, he and his wife moved to Angeles City and stayed there for one year.

Apo Sinang’s NPA brother was eventually captured and detained at the PC stockade in Camp Olivas, San Fernando. She naturally visited him frequently and these would soon arouse suspicions among the NPA about her loyalty particularly when it became known that she had made friends with PC officers and enlisted men.

She was then suspected by the NPA of being the informant who had tipped the PC of the presence of Roger Buscayno’s group. Apparently, based on this mere suspicion, a decision was made to kill her and this was relayed to her by a relative who told her she was being given a grace period of two weeks to set her personal affairs in order. Sinang however relayed the message that whoever it was that wanted her killed should first confront and investigate (“litisin”) her to determine whether she was really guilty.

Apo Sinang declared to the messenger that she only serves the people, and was not a turncoat (“balimbing”). She added that she was not afraid to die but requested that the sentence be carried out in her house so her family would not have a problem locating her body. Luckily for Sinang, within the two-week period, the alleged informer was discovered and killed. It was an Ayta woman who was incidentally also a godmother to one of Sinang’s children.

Towards the late seventies, the CPP-NPA had suffered several reversals in Central Luzon and Northern Luzon (Weekley 2001:83). Aside from military setbacks which killed several of the first generation of cadres, prominent leaders were captured such as Sison and Dante in 1977. Expansion however was going on in other regions of the country including the Visayas and Mindanao provinces.

In the villages of San Vicente, Sto. Niño and Calumpang, a new crop of CPP-NPA cadres had appeared. Details are somewhat hazy but some settlers have intimated to me that this new batch was different in that they were more militaristic in their approach [27] and paid less attention to political work, not to mention economic reforms. From villagers’ accounts, I gathered that sympathies among them for the rebel forces were considerably reduced as a result.

Summarizing the years of insurgency and disquiet in the area, Ruben Sison remarked: “It was an infernal season. For the fainthearted this was not the place to live in” (“Kainit-initan ng panahon. Kung mahina ang loob mo, hindi ka titira dito”).

The “infernal season” came to an end in 1979 when the Philippine government initiated an integrated rural development and resettlement project that exclusively covered the three villages. [28] Aware of the presence of the left wing rebels in the area, the first item on the project implementors’ agenda was a massive counter-insurgency campaign with the objective of purging the area of the NPA and neutralizing its mass base.

All known NPAs and their sympathizers were rounded up and many were tortured and jailed. The whole area was fenced in and countless military checkpoints were set up. As many as three army battalions were stationed in the area with a combined strength of 2,000 men. The soldiers’ camps and the checkpoints dotted the area all the way up to the mountainous parts. The overbearing presence of the state’s military forces made the area look more like a military camp than a rural development project. Faced with the massive show of military strength and the now lukewarm attitude of the residents, the NPA soon found the area less hospitable to its forces and significantly scaled down its presence. [29] It was at this point that the three villages became collectively known as Sacobia, after the major river that flows along the area’s southern flank.

Marciano Guevara, A Life Story

The locally specific and unique characteristics of interactions between Marxist rebels and peasant communities are further reflected in the life stories of village residents who participated in the movement. Given the dearth of documentary evidence of the history of the community, these life stories serve as alternative sources for describing and explaining the motivations and the dynamics of the encounters. At the same time, they also lend a more human and compelling face to the analysis. Finally, the life stories combine to recount a perspective of history from below as distinct from a history based on the actions of the privileged and powerful (Ileto 1988; Hobsbawm 1997). One such life story is briefly presented below.

Marciano “Marcing” Guevara [30] was an eighteen-year-old farmer in San Vicente and a first-year high school drop-out when he joined the NPA in 1972. He claims to have been personally recruited by Dante Buscayno himself. He also says that he had met prominent leftist leaders such as Jose Ma. Sison (from whom he got his political education), Rodolfo Salas, [31] and many others.

At first Marcing was placed under the command of Juanito Rivera (Kumander Juaning). Then he was assigned as one of Dante’s personal bodyguards. He was with the NPA chief in Sto. Rosario, Mexico, Pampanga as part of a ten-man security squad when Dante was captured in January 1977. Marcing says the movie version of the NPA leader’s arrest was wrong. According to him, soldiers led by Gen. Gatan first entered the house where Dante, his wife, and newly-born child were staying but did not recognize the rebel chief. Dante then went out the back disguised as a woman but an informer, an ice cream vendor, recognized him and pointed him out to the military. Marcing says they did not engage the troops in a firefight because they were badly outnumbered. Having taken Dante, the troops did not bother with the other NPAs and immediately left.

Marcing was next sent to Nueva Ecija where he was promoted to the rank of “Kumander” and took the nom de guerre of “Celdran.” He says that he once led company-sized (102 persons) and platoon-sized (36 persons) guerrilla units while operating in the province. His exploits soon earned him in a place in the military’s “order of battle” and the government put out an PhP80,000 reward for his capture dead or alive.

In 1982, he was visiting his sister in Pangasinan when she contacted a neighbor-friend who was an Army lieutenant. The sister urged this friend to talk Marcing into giving up. Instead, the lieutenant contacted his unit in Baguio City. When the reinforcements came, Marcing offered no resistance and went with them peacefully. He says that at that moment, he felt a sense of relief that his days as a hunted man were over. He was tired of running and hiding and wanted to live a peaceful life once again. He adds that he bears no ill feelings towards his sister who turned him in.

Marcing was brought to Camp Olivas in San Fernando, Pampanga where he was detained for one month. He said that he was treated well and did not suffer any torture. He even got to talk to then President Marcos on the phone who offered him amnesty which he accepted. Shortly after, Marcos paid a visit to the Sacobia development project and the military took Marcing along on the same trip. While at the project site, he was given a loaded gun and brought to the house of one of the residents where he was asked to point out who among the villagers were NPAs or sympathizers. This was the first time it dawned on him that he was being utilized as a government informer. He strongly maintained however that he never informed on anyone and that he has not turned against his former comrades.

In 1983, Marcing married his long-time sweetheart and went back to live in San Vicente. He first worked for two months with a seed farm managed by the Bureau of Plant Industry before being hired by the rural development project as an emergency laborer.

Given his good grasp of issues of the day, Marcing must have had an intensive political education which he internalized well. During my interview with him in 1991, he frequently repeated slogans of the revolution and Marxist terms such as “imperialism”, “petty bourgeois”, “lumpen proletariat”, etc. He also tried to explain to me the foreign debt issue as a context of the then Cory Aquino government’s economic problems. He said that Cory was finished and would not win in San Vicente if she should run again. In 1986, she won by a landslide in the village only because people then perceived Marcos to be corrupt.

Marcing seemed to be resigned to his present situation and the consequences of his decision to leave behind the life of a guerrilla leader. He was also aware of the corresponding constraints on his everyday life. He said that knew what things were wrong and why but he could not do anything about it for fear of losing his job. For example, he realized that something had to be done about the low wages of emergency laborers like himself but he hesitated to act as he should. Otherwise, he may as well go back to the hills, he reasoned. While he has never denounced his former comrades, he appeared also to have cut off all ties with them and simply wanted to be left alone in peace.

 Peasants and the Agrarian Revolution

One prominent feature of the peasant movement in Central Luzon under both the old communist party (PKP-HMB) and the later Maoist group (CPP-NPA) was the leadership role played by non-peasants. In short the theories and the main leaders of the agrarian revolution originated from outside peasant society and representation was being made on its behalf by outsiders bearing the ideology of the proletariat even if these outsiders actually came mostly from other social classes, including the middle and upper classes.

Pedro Abad Santos, founder and chairman of the peasant-based Socialist Party organized in 1932 and later PKP Vice Chairman in 1938, was a member of the landed aristocracy and had been elected twice to the legislature. [32] Other known leaders were Mateo del Castillo, a businessman son of a Spanish landowner who was at the same time a Protestant minister (Kerkvliet 1979:142 and Allen 1983:9); Casto Alejandrino and Vivencio Cuyugan, both of whom came from the landlord class and were former town mayors, the popular Juan Feleo, former teacher and son of a small landowner (Kerkvliet 1979:51); Jose de Leon, also from a small landowning family; and Luis Taruc, who despite his immediate humble beginnings, was actually descended from a prominent family in the 19th century who happened to fall upon hard times (Larkin 1993:310).

There were however other top leaders who came from the peasant and lower classes such as Jacinto Manahan and Mariano Franco. Furthermore, Kerkvliet and Constantino both point to the spontaneity and grassroots origins of many of the peasant organizations as well as the autonomy exercised and independent actions often undertaken by grassroots members and cadres including more radical and violent actions which were reportedly frowned upon by their organization’s national leaders.

The particular Marxist theory that views peasants as incapable of self-organization for a revolutionary (as compared to a reformist) purpose also seemed to have been validated among the second generation of communist rebels represented by the CPP-NPA group. All the thirteen original founding members of the CPP in December 1968 came from the middle class – intellectuals and students. Five months later, Bernabe “Kumander Dante” Buscayno and seven of his peasant guerrilla leaders were included in the party’s central committee (Caouette 2004:120). But Buscayno, who reached 3rd year high school in Angeles city and attained proletarian (and later intellectual) consciousness as a worker in Manila, may have had already transcended his peasant roots at this time. Furthermore, he later developed a patronizing attitude towards the peasantry. [33]

The weak presence of the PKP-HMB in the three villages had been attributed by a former leading cadre to the distractions posed by the internal conflicts with a renegade faction (the Sumulong group). With respect to this, it should however also be noted that many of the settlers had moved to the area in the late forties and early fifties to avoid being involved in the peasant rebellion that had broken out in the lowland areas of Pampanga and Tarlac. But if one searches for ideological factors, Nemenzo (1984) offers such an explanation. He argues that the PKP-HMB organization (especially in the rural areas) was heavily permeated by what he calls a “millenarian-populist syndrome” brought about by the merger of the Socialist Party (SPP) of Pedro Abad Santos with the original PKP in 1938. While the PKP was grounded in the working class and had firm trade union roots, the SPP was peasant-based and exhibited tendencies and practices anathema to Marxism. [34] But since the experience of peasant revolutions in other countries show that successes were achieved mainly by setting aside Marxist orthodoxies, it is highly questionable whether a more rigorous grounding in and faithful adherence to Marxist theory would have helped the PKP-HMB’s revolutionary undertaking in Central Luzon.

The years of CPP-NPA activities in the villages of San Vicente, Sto. Niño, and Calumpang did heighten the political consciousness of the peasant settlers compared to previous encounters with the PKP-HMB group. This was achieved through intensive political education seminars as well as by the exemplary behavior and ethical conduct exhibited by the guerrillas and their leaders.
It could be said however that different motivations were also at work that made barrio residents’ lend assistance to the NPAs. Certainly many were genuinely attracted to the NPA’s vision of an egalitarian and just society. For those with relatives in the guerrilla movement or had been involved in past agrarian struggles, the motivations were clear. But even those who expressed admiration for the rebels’ high ethical standards also say they knew they would be killed if they did not cooperate. They did however compare and contrast the NPA’s behavior with that of government troops whom they would also feed but would never pay for what they would take.

The ambivalent attitude of the settlers toward the NPA was perhaps manifested subconsciously by their reference to the guerrillas as “people from the outside” (“taong labas”) or simply the “armed group” (“hukbo”). Rodolfo David thought that the promised equality was unattainable because the rich and powerful would always be what they are (“Ang mayaman, mayaman talaga; ang may kapangyarihan, may kapangyarihan talaga”).

By all accounts, the CPP-NPA units that operated in the three villages addressed only political concerns and did not substantially take on pressing economic concerns such as the land issue. Thus a form of local administration was put in place that took care of peace and order issues while political education through intensive seminars was undertaken as well.

Although the issues of rent reduction and more equitable tenant sharing arrangements were discussed, [35] these could not be implemented in the areas. For one, landlordism per se did not exist in the villages and the relatively well-off settlers (middle peasants) who employed seasonal labor or had “tenants” were also supportive of the NPA and thus were exempted from coverage of these programs. [36] A second possible reason was that, based on the settler-peasants’ accounts, the NPA also regarded the three villages as a “rest and recuperation” place or as a passageway to their Zambales field of operations and therefore the implementation of revolutionary economic programs would attract unwanted government attention. This point became moot however because the mere NPA presence did attract the Philippine military’s attention and the place before long became a critical hotspot. [37] Thus the opportunity for a sustainable and lasting leftwing influence among the villagers was passed by.

This concentration on law and order issues in areas under the NPA influence appeared to have been widespread enough to generate a pointed criticism in a major CPP strategy document “Our Urgent Tasks” (OUT) written by Sison in 1975 (Weekley 2001:86-87). According to the OUT document, not enough attention was paid to undertaking minimum land reform programs such as rent reduction, elimination of usury, and establishing peasant associations. The document thus called on their cadres to do more than “punishing cattle rustlers and disturbers of local peace.”

The dilemma for the CPP-NPA as well as for the legal mass organizations influenced by it however is that the principal form of struggle of their “national democratic revolution” has always been the armed struggle with all other forms (legal and electoral) subordinated to it (Borras 2004:223 and 225). Thus the stress was on developing political and military cadres, not development workers who could carry out economic programs such as rent reduction. This was starkly shown during the unilateral land occupations of 1986-87 conducted by CPP influenced peasant groups where an estimated 75,000 hectares of land were seized and yet only 10 percent of it was made productive. [38]

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